بررسی الگوهای رشد و دوشکلی جنسی جمجمه در خرس قهوه‏ای (Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758) در رشته‌کوه‏های البرز ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری محیط زیست گروه محیط زیست و انرژی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران

2 گروه محیط زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرج، دانشگاه تهران

3 گروه شیلات، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرج، دانشگاه تهران کرج، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

در این پژوهش به دو روش ریخت‏سنجی سنتی و هندسی، الگوی رشد جمجمه‏ای و دوریختی جنسی خرس‏های قهوه‏ای[1] از نابالغ تا بالغ در دو جنس نر و ماده در محدودۀ رشته‌کوه البرز بررسی و مقایسه شد. داده‏های بررسی‌شده از تصاویر دو‌بعدی تهیه‌شده از نمونه‏ها توسط نرم‌افزار ImageJ استخراج و الگوی رشد آلومتری به‌صورت تابع توانی طول کل با استفاده از داده‏های تغییر‌نیافته اندازه‏گیری شدند. نتایج گویای تغییرات بین بخش‏های مختلف جمجمه در افراد بالغ در روش مبتنی بر شکل بود. مطالعۀ الگوی رشد آلومتری بر‌پایۀ داده‌های قابل اندازه‏گیری، الگوهای تغییرات جمجمه را در طول رشد بین نرها و ماده‏ها به‌خوبی نشان داد. طی توسعۀ بخش‏های مختلف جمجمه از نابالغ به بالغ دو جنس نر و ماده، رشد به شکل متعادل تا سن مشخص یعنی تا زمانی که دو‌ریختی جنسی در دو جنس شروع به ظهور می‏کند ادامه می‏یابد. مقایسۀ اشکال به‌دست‌آمدۀ دو جنس گویای تقویت و استحکام بیشتر بخش‏های مختلف جمجمه در جنس نر است. بررسی دوریختی جنسی جمجمۀ خرس‏ها با استفاده از ریخت‏سنجی هندسی نشان‌دهندۀ وجود دوریختی جنسی در بخش‏های مختلف جمجمه در هر سه نمای پشتی، جانبی و شکمی است. به‌طور‌کلی، جمجمه در جنس نر بالغ تمایل به بزرگ‏تر‌شدن و استحکام به نسبت جمجمۀ مادۀ بالغ دارند. در مقابل ماده‏های بالغ نسبت به همنوعان نر خود جمجمۀ



 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Allometric growth pattern and sexual dimorphism of skull on brown bear(Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758)of the Alborz Mountain

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bagher Nezami 1
  • Mahmoud Karami 2
  • Soheil Eagderi 3
  • Mohamad Kaboli 2
1 Faculty of Energy and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran
3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to investigate theallometric growth pattern and sexual dimorphism in the skull of both sexes ofIranian brown bear (Ursus arctos) in theAlborz Mountains using geometric morphometric and traditional morphometric techniques. Morphometric parameters were obtained from 2D pictures of skulls using the software ImageJ and allometric growth pattern was calculated as a power function of total length using non-transformed data. The results revealed significant differencesbetweendifferent parts ofthe skullin both two sexes.Allometric growth patternalso showedthat differencebetweenmales and femalesduring their ontogenic growth of skull.Results showed that during development of skull parts from Immature to adult in male and female, similargrow pattern will continuetoa certainage until sexual dimorphism appears. Growth patterns is a factorfor the sexual dimorphism differences. Different charts shows more consolidate in different parts of the male skull.Based on the results, there is significant differences between skull shape of male and female of brown bear skull in ventral, dorsal and lateral faces. According to the results Males in different parts of the skull is stronger whereas have shown more length, narrower andweaker in females.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • brown bear
  • skull
  • Sexual dimorphism
  • allometric growth pattern
  • geometric morphometric
 

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