بررسی فلزات سنگین در موجودات سطوح تروفیکی مختلف از بخش جنوب غربی دریای خزر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، موسسه تحقیقات علوم شیلاتی کشور، پژوهشکده آبزی پروری آب های داخلی، بندر انزلی

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی محیط‌زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع‌طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

3 استاد گروه مهندسی محیط‌زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع‌طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

در این مطالعه بزرگنمایی زیستی فلزات سنگین در موجودات از سطوح تروفیک مختلف دریای خزر  بررسی گردید. موجودات فراوان و ساکن در سه منطقۀ آستارا، انزلی و چابکسر مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. سه گونۀ بی­مهره شامل ماکرو زئو پلانکتون Mnemiposis leidyi، صدف Cerastoderma glucaum ، سخت پوست  Balanus improvisus  و پنج گونۀ ماهی شامل دو گونۀ گاو ماهی کفزی از جنسNeogobius ، گل آذین ماهی Atherina boyeri، شاه کولی Alburnus chalcoides و ماهی سفید Rutilus kutum و پستاندار دریای خزر Phoca caspica موجودات مورد مطالعه را تشکیل دادند. مقادیر ایزوتوپ­های پایدار کربن 13 و نیتروژن  15 در اولین مصرف کنندگان سه منطقه تفاوت معنی­دار نشان دادند. گونۀ فک دارای بالاترین مقدار 15Nδ  و سطح تروفی بود. غلظت بیشتر فلزات در ماکرو زئو پلانکتون، صدف و سخت پوست  
اندازه­گیری شده درحالی­که در عضلۀ ماهیان و فک در حد سنجش دستگاه نبود. بیشترین غلظت کبالت و نیکل در صدف و  بیشترین غلظت روی، استرانسیوم و منگنز در سخت پوست سنجش گردید. ضریب همبستگی منفی بین غلظت بیشتر فلزات و سطح تروفی که بیانگر عدم بزرگنمایی زیستی فلزات در زنجیرۀ مورد مطالعه بود، مشاهده شده است. نتایج ارزیابی­ها نشان داد که مقدار شاخص آلودگی فلزات (MPI) در منطقۀ انزلی بیشتر از مناطق آستارا و چابکسر بوده است. نتایج این بررسی ضمن آنکه توانایی برخی گونه­ها را به­عنوان شاخص زیستی در سطح منطقه­ای و بین­المللی نشان داده، امکان مقایسۀ میزان آلودگی دریای خزر را نسبت به بسیاری از نقاط دنیا فراهم نموده است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of metals in organisms from different trophic levels of the southwest Caspian

نویسندگان [English]

  • alireza mirzajani 1
  • Amir Hossein Hamidian 2
  • mahmod karami 3
چکیده [English]

The Caspian Sea, as the largest land-enclosed drainage area in the world has been endangered by various environmental pollutants, discharged from coastal catchment. In this study the trophodynamics of metals are investigated in different organisms from the Caspian food web. Furthermore, the species with potential bio-indicator abilities have also been distinguished. Nine species including three invertebrates Mnemiposis leidyi, Cerastoderma glucaum and Balanus improvises; five fish species Neogobius spp, Atherina boyeri, Alburnus chalcoides, Rutilus kutum and the Caspian seal Phoca caspica were studied in three regions of the southwestern Caspian: i.e. Astara, Anzali and Chaboksar. The stable isotope of primary producer (POM) was very various in each region compare to those from primary consumers. Phoca caspica had the highest average δ15N and TLs as the top of the food chain. The concentrations of metals for the most samples of fish were below the detection limits; while the concentrations were detected in most invertebrate samples. Our results suggested the abilities of Cerastoderma glucaum as indicator of Ni and Co contamination. Balanus improvises had a high capacity for Zn, Sr, Mn and Cu bioconcentration. By comparing ln-concentration of metals vs. TLs, no metal biomagnification was observed. The marine pollution index in Anzali region was higher than those in Astara and Chaboksar regions. While this study provides the basic data from southwestern Caspian Sea; C. glucaum and B. improvises could be proper bioindicator species for worldwide comparison of metal pollution.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Caspian Sea
  • Heavy metals
  • stable isotope
  • trophic level
  • organisms

Agusa, T., Kunito, T., Tanabe, S., Pourkazemi, M., Aubrey, D.G., 2004. Concentrations of trace elements in muscle of sturgeons in the Caspian Sea. Marine pollution bulletin 49, 789-800.

Anan, Y., Kunito, T., Tanabe, S., Mitrofanov, I., Aubrey, D.G., 2005. Trace element accumulation in fishes collected from coastal waters of the Caspian Sea. Marine pollution bulletin 51, 882-888.

Asante, K.A., Agusa, T., Mochizuki, H., Ramu, K., Inoue, S., Kubodera, T., Takahashi, S., Subramanian, A., Tanabe, S., 2008. Trace elements and stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in shallow and deep-water organisms from the East China Sea. Environmental Pollution 156, 862-873.

Boening, D.W., 1999. An evaluation of bivalves as biomonitors of heavy metals pollution in marine waters. Environmental monitoring and assessment 55, 459-470.

Cabana, G., Rasmussen, J.B., 1996. Comparison of aquatic food chains using nitrogen isotopes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93, 10844-10847.

Campbell, L.M., Norstrom, R.J., Hobson, K.A., Muir, D.C., Backus, S., Fisk, A.T., 2005. Mercury and other trace elements in a pelagic Arctic marine food web (Northwater Polynya, Baffin Bay). Science of the Total Environment 351, 247-263.

de Mora, S., Sheikholeslami, M.R., Wyse, E., Azemard, S., Cassi, R., 2004. An assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediments of the Caspian Sea. Marine pollution bulletin 48, 61-77.

Eaton, A.D., Franson, M.A.H., Associati, A.P.H., Association, A.W.W., Federation, W.E., 2005. Standard Methods for Examination of Water & Wastewater: Centennial Edition. Amer Public Health Assn.

Foroughi Fard, R., Esmaeli Sari, A., Ghasempouri, S.M., 2008. The correlation of length and weight of Kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) in the central south of Caspian Sea with copper and zinc concentration in muscle and liver tissues. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 16 (4), 121-128.

Gray, J.S., 2002. Biomagnification in marine systems: the perspective of an ecologist. Marine pollution bulletin 45, 46-52.

Hobson, K.A., Fisk, A., Karnovsky, N., Holst, M., Gagnon, J.M., Fortier, M., 2002. A stable isotope (δ13C,δ15N) model for the North Water food web: implications for evaluating trophodynamics and the flow of energy and contaminants. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 49, 5131-5150.

Hossieni, A., Roohi, A., Ganjian, K.A., Roshantabari, M., Hashemian, A., Solimanroudi, A., Nasrollazadeh, H.S., Najafpour, S., Varedi, F., A., V., 1998. Hydrology and Hydrobiology of the southern Caspian Sea. Mazandaran Fisheries Research Center Sari, Iran (In Persian).

Ikemoto, T., Kunito, T., Watanabe, I., Yasunaga, G., Baba, N., Miyazaki, N., Petrov, E.A., Tanabe, S., 2004. Comparison of trace element accumulation in Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica), Caspian seals (Pusa caspica) and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus). Environmental Pollution 127, 83-97.

Ikemoto, T., Tu, N.P.C., Okuda, N., Iwata, A., Omori, K., Tanabe, S., Tuyen, B.C., Takeuchi, I., 2008. Biomagnification of trace elements in the aquatic food web in the Mekong Delta, South Vietnam using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology 54, 504-515.

Jardine, T.D., Kidd, K.A., Fisk, A.T., 2006. Applications, considerations, and sources of uncertainty when using stable isotope analysis in ecotoxicology. Environmental science & technology 40, 7501-7511.

Klumpp, D., Burdon-Jones, C., 1982. Investigations of the potential of bivalve molluscs as indicators of heavy metal levels in tropical marine waters. Marine and Freshwater Research 33, 285-300.

Kojadinovic, J., Potier, M., Le Corre, M., Cosson, R.P., Bustamante, P., 2007. Bioaccumulation of trace elements in pelagic fish from the Western Indian Ocean. Environmental Pollution 146, 548-566.

Lake, J.L., McKinney, R.A., Osterman, F.A., Pruell, R.J., Kiddon, J., Ryba, S.A., Libby, A.D., 2001. Stable nitrogen isotopes as indicators of anthropogenic activities in small freshwater systems. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58, 870-878.

Laloei, F., 2001. Investigation of hydrology and hydrobiology in the south of Caspian Sea. Iranian Fisheries Research Organization (IFRO), Sari, Iran (In Persian).

Le Loc'h, F., Hily, C., Grall, J., 2008. Benthic community and food web structure on the continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay (North Eastern Atlantic) revealed by stable isotopes analysis. Journal of Marine Systems 72, 17-34.

Maanan, M., 2008. Heavy metal concentrations in marine molluscs from the Moroccan coastal region. Environmental Pollution 153, 176-183.

Machreki-Ajmi, M., Rebai, T., Hamza-Chaffai, A., 2011. Variation of metallothionein-like protein and metal concentrations during the reproductive cycle of the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum from an uncontaminated site: A 1-year study in the Gulf of Gabès area (Tunisia). Marine Biology Research 7, 261-271.

Martinetto, P., Teichberg, M., Valiela, I., 2006. Coupling of estuarine benthic and pelagic food webs to land-derived nitrogen sources in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts, USA.

Mashroofeh, A., Bakhtiari, A.R., Pourkazemi, M., Rasouli, S., 2013. Bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in the edible and inedible tissues of three sturgeon species in the Iranian coastline of the Caspian Sea. Chemosphere 90, 573-580.

McKinney, R., Lake, J., Charpentier, M., Ryba, S., 2002. Using mussel isotope ratios to assess anthropogenic nitrogen inputs to freshwater ecosystems. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 74, 167-192.

Minagawa, M., Wada, E., 1984. Stepwise enrichment of δ 15 N along food chains: Further evidence and the relation between δ15 N and animal age. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48, 1135-1140.

Mincks, S.L., Smith, C.R., Jeffreys, R.M., Sumida, P.Y.G., 2008. Trophic structure on the West Antarctic Peninsula shelf: Detritivory and benthic inertia revealed by δ 13C and δ15 N analysis. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 55, 2502-2514.

Monsefrad, F., Imanpour Namin, J., Heidary, S., 2012. Concentration of heavy and toxic metals Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg in liver and muscles of Rutilus frisii kutum during spawning season with respect to growth parameters. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 11, 825-839.

Newman, W.A., Abbott, D.P., 1980. Cirripedia: the barnacles. Intertidal Invertebrates of California. Stanford University Press, Stanford, 504-535.

Nikula, R., Väinölä, R., 2003. Phylogeography of Cerastoderma glaucum (Bivalvia: Cardiidae) across Europe: a major break in the Eastern Mediterranean. Marine Biology.143(2),339-350.

Perga, M.E., Gerdeaux, D., 2006. Seasonal variability in the δ13C and δ 15 N values of the zooplankton taxa in two alpine lakes. Acta Oecologica 30, 69-77.

Phillips, D.J., Segar, D.A., 1986. Use of bio-indicators in monitoring conservative contaminants: programme design imperatives. Marine Pollution Bulletin 17, 10-17.

Post, D.M., 2002. Using stable isotopes to estimate trophic position: models, methods, and assumptions. Ecology 83, 703-718.

Pourang, N., Tanabe, S., Rezvani, S., Dennis, J., 2005. Trace elements accumulation in edible tissues of five sturgeon species from the Caspian Sea. Environmental monitoring and assessment 100, 89-108.

Powell, M., White, K., 1990. Heavy metal accumulation by barnacles and its implications for their use as biological monitors. Marine environmental research 30, 91-118.

Rainbow, P., White, S., 1989. Comparative strategies of heavy metal accumulation by crustaceans: zinc, copper and cadmium in a decapod, an amphipod and a barnacle. Hydrobiologia 174, 245-262.

Rainbow, P., Wolowicz, M., Fialkowski, W., Smith, B., Sokolowski, A., 2000. Biomonitoring of trace metals in the Gulf of Gdansk, using mussels ( Mytilus trossulus) and barnacles (Balanus improvisus). Water Research 34, 1823-1829.

Rainbow, P.S., 1987. Heavy metals in barnacles. In Barnacle Biology. Crustacean Issue 5, 405-417.

Rainbow, P.S., 1995. Biomonitoring of heavy metal availability in the marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 31, 183-192.

Romeo, M., Gnassia-Barelli, M., Carre, C., 1987. Trace metals: Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in gelatinous macroplankton from the northwestern Méditerranéan. Water Research 21, 1287-1292.

Sadeghirad, M., 2002. Determination of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg) caviar and muscle tissue in Persian sturgeon (Acipencer persicus) and Stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) in southern Caspian sea. Iranian Fisheries Research organization, International sturgeon research institute, Rasht, p. 82.

Sadeghirad, M., 2007. Accumulation of trace elements in Acipenser persicus tissues in relation to feeding habits and mode of absorption of these pollutants. Iranian fisheries research organisation, Internatinoal sturgeon research institute, p. 42 pp.

Shahryari, A., Golfirozy, K., Noshin, S., 2010. Muscular concentration of cadmium and lead in carp, mullet and kutum of the Gorgan Bay, Caspian Sea. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 19 (2), 95-100.

Sherwood, G.D., Rose, G.A., 2005. Stable isotope analysis of some representative fish and invertebrates of the Newfoundland and Labrador continental shelf food web. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 63, 537-549.

Sohrabi, T., Ismail, A., Nabavi, M., 2010. Distribution and Normalization of some Metals in Surface Sediments from South Caspian Sea. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 85, 502-508.

Szefer, P., Szefer, K., 1985. Occurrence of ten metals in Mytilus edulis L. and Cardium glaucum L. from the Gdańsk Bay. Marine pollution bulletin 16, 446-450.

UNEP/UNDP, 2011. Caspian Sea - State of Environment p. 102 pp.

Usero, J., Morillo, J., Gracia, I., 2005. Heavy metal concentrations in molluscs from the Atlantic coast of southern Spain. Chemosphere 59, 1175-1181.

Vander Zanden, M.J., Cabana, G., Rasmussen, J.B., 1997. Comparing trophic position of freshwater fish calculated using stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ 15 N) and literature dietary data. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54, 1142-1158.

Vander Zanden, M.J., Casselman, J.M., Rasmussen, J.B., 1999. Stable isotope evidence for the food web consequences of species invasions in lakes. Nature 401, 464-467.

Vander Zanden, M.J., Rasmussen, J.B., 1996. A trophic position model of pelagic food webs: impact on contaminant bioaccumulation in lake trout. Ecological Monographs, 451-477.

Vander Zanden, M.J., Rasmussen, J.B., 2001. Variation in δ15N and δ13C trophic fractionation: implications for aquatic food web studies. Limnology and oceanography, 2061-2066.

Vander Zanden, M.J., Vadeboncoeur, Y., Diebel, M.W., Jeppesen, E., 2005. Primary consumer stable nitrogen isotopes as indicators of nutrient source. Environmental science & technology 39, 7509-7515.

Varedi, S.E., 2011. Survey on  envirnomental pollutants (heavy metals, hydrocarbons, surfactant and chlorinated pesticides) in southern part of the caspian sea. Iranian Fisheries research organization, Caspian sea ecology research center, Sari, p. 200.

Watanabe, I., Kunito, T., Tanabe, S., Amano, M., Koyama, Y., Miyazaki, N., Petrov, E., Tatsukawa, R., 2002. Accumulation of heavy metals in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica). Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology 43, 109-120.

Yoshinaga, J., Suzuki, T., Hongo, T., Minagawa, M., Ohtsuka, R., Kawabe, T., Inaoka, T., Akimichi, T., 1992. Mercury concentration correlates with the nitrogen stable isotope ratio in the animal food of Papuans. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 24, 37-45.

Zhang, W., Wang, W.-X., 2012. Large-scale spatial and interspecies differences in trace elements and stable isotopes in marine wild fish from Chinese waters. Journal of hazardous materials 215, 65-74.