آزادسازی فلزات سنگین از اجزای مختلف رسوبات غنی‌شده در ستون آبشویی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس‌ارشد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

2 استادیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

سنجش فراهمی و تحرک فلزات سنگین به‌منظور فهم رفتار این فلزات در رسوبات و جلوگیری از پتانسیل خطرات زیست‌محیطی آن‏ها ضروری است. آزمایش ستون آبشویی روی چهار نمونه رسوب با ویژگی‏های فیزیکی و شیمیایی متفاوت غنی‌شده با نمک فلزات روی، کادمیوم، نیکل، مس و سرب برای تعیین میزان تحرک و چگونگی توزیع فلزات انجام شد. نتایج عصاره‏گیری متوالی رسوبات غنی‌شده نشان داد که جزء عمدۀ روی، نیکل و مس در جزء باقی‌مانده و اجزای عمدۀ کادمیوم، جزء تبادلی و معدنی است. دربارۀ سرب در رسوبات غنی‌شده جزء باقی‌مانده و معدنی بیشترین سهم را داشت. در رسوب 1 آب مقطر توانسته کادمیوم، روی و نیکل بیشتری را نسبت به مس و سرب متحرک سازد. در رسوبات رسی 3 و 4 آب مقطر سرب و مس بیشتری نسبت به کادمیوم، روی و نیکل متحرک ساخت. مس و سرب کمتر تحت تأثیر نوسانات pH آب منفذی قرار گرفتند. آزاد‌سازی مس و سرب در رسوب 4 از جزء آلی معنا‏دار بود. بر اساس درصد نسبی در جزء تبادلی در رسوب 1 غنی‏شده ترتیب تحرک فلزات قبل و بعد از آبشویی به‌صورت زیر بود که Cu<Pb<Zn = Ni<Cd، که نشان‌دهندۀ امکان تحرک کادمیوم در pH های اسیدی است. در بین ویژگی‏های رسوبات pH در آب منفذی، به‌طور مستقیم و غیرمستقیم بر کلیۀ فرایندهای شیمیایی و به‌دنبال آن بر رفتار فلزات سنگین در رسوبات تأثیر‌گذار است. روش غنی‌سازی و آبشویی روشی مناسب برای ارزیابی خطرات زیست‌محیطی فلزات سنگین است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Release of heavy metals after spiking and leaching from different sediment fractions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamed Arfania 1
  • Farokh Asadzadeh 2
1 Urmia University
چکیده [English]

Measurement of availability and mobility of heavy metals in river sediments is required in order to understand the behavior of these metals and to prevent potential toxic hazards. Leaching column experiments were conducted for four sediment samples to determine the degree of mobility and the distribution of Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, and Pb because of an application of spiked heavy metals in sediments. Sequential extraction results showed that in spiked sediments the major proportion of Zn, Ni and Cu were associated with residual fraction and major fractions of Cd was associated with exchangeable and mineral fractions and major fraction of Pb was associated with residual and mineral fractions. In sediment (1) distill water mobilized more Cd, Zn and Ni than Cu and Pb. In sediment (3) and (4) distill water mobilized more Pb and Cu than Cd, Zn and Ni. Therefore, Cu and Pb were least affected by the pore water pH volatility. The release of Pb and Cu were considerable from organic matter fraction in sediment (4). Based on relative percent in exchangeable fraction, the order of solubility was Cd > Ni = Zn > Pb > Cu for spiked sediments before and after leaching indicating possible mobility of Cd, Ni, and Zn. Among sediment properties the pH in pore water influences the behavior of heavy metals in sediments. Spiking and leaching approach is conducive for evaluating of heavy metals toxicity and mobility tests.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sediment
  • Spiking
  • Heavy metals
  • release
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