تأثیر جنگل‏کاری پهن‌برگ و سوزنی‌برگ بر میزان ذخیرۀ کربن خاک در جنگل برنجستانک استان مازندران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

2 کارشناس ارشد جنگل‌داری دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی اثر جنگل‏کاری بر ویژگی‏های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک به‌ویژه ذخیرۀ کربن خاک در جنگل برنجستانک انجام شده است. جنگل‏کاری‏ها شامل افرا پلت (Acer velotinum Boiss.)، زبان‌گنجشک (Fraxinus excelsior L.)، صنوبر تبریزی (Populus nigra L.) و کاج بروسیا (Pinus brutia Ten.) بودند. یک جنگل شاهد با گونه‏های آمیخته نیز به‌منزلۀ پتانسیل منطقه انتخاب شد. چهار پروفیل خاک در هر تیپ جنگل‏کاری و جنگل شاهد به‌طور تصادفی حفر و از هر پروفیل سه نمونه خاک از عمق‏های 0-10، 10-20 و 20-30 سانتی‏متری برداشت شد. در آزمایشگاه عوامل خاکی شامل وزن مخصوص ظاهری، درصد رطوبت اشباع خاک، اسیدیته، نیتروژن، پتاسیم قابل جذب، کلسیم و منیزیم قابل جذب، کربن آلی و ذخیرۀ کربن خاک اندازه‏گیری شدند. برای بررسی اثر تیپ جنگل و عمق خاک بر ویژگی‏ها و توان ذخیرۀ کربن خاک، تجزیۀ واریانس دو‌طرفه انجام شد. از‌آنجا‌که اثر متقابل رویشگاه در عمق خاک در هیچ ویژگی معنادار نشد، مقایسۀ میانگین ویژگی‏های خاکی بین پنج رویشگاه و سه عمق خاک به‌طور جداگانه به کمک آزمون دانکن انجام گرفت. برای بررسی دقیق‏تر توان ذخیرۀ کربن، همبستگی بین میزان ذخیرۀ کربن با دیگر ویژگی‏های خاک در هر رویشگاه جداگانه محاسبه و سپس الگوی رگرسیونی ذخیرۀ کربن پنج رویشگاه با روش گام‌به‌گام پس‏رونده تعیین شد. در رویشگاه شاهد ذخیرۀ کربن خاک با نیتروژن، در رویشگاه افرا و زبان‌گنجشک با کربن آلی و وزن مخصوص ظاهری، در رویشگاه کاج با کربن آلی و در رویشگاه صنوبر تبریزی با منیزیم همبستگی بیشتری داشته است. نتایج نشان داد که رویشگاه و عمق اثر معنا‏داری بر میزان ذخیرۀ کربن خاک داشتند. همچنین عمق اول بیشترین میزان ذخیره را داشت‌ و دو عمق دیگر خاک ذخیرۀ کمتری داشتند و با یکدیگر تفاوت معنا‏داری نداشتند. میزان ذخیرۀ کربن در رویشگاه زبان‌گنجشک بیشترین و صنوبر تبریزی کمترین بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of forestation hardwood and softwood on soil carbon storage in Berenjestanak forest at Mazandaran Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Jalilvand 1
  • Zeinab Jafarian 1
  • Majid Yusefi 2
1 Associated professor in Sari Agricultural Science and Natural Resources University
2 MS.C in forest management in Sari Agricultural Science and Natural Resources University
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of reforestation on physical and chemical soil properties particularly soil carbon storage in the Berenjastanak forest. Forestations were including Acer velotinum Boiss., Fraxinus excelsior L., Populus nigra L. and Pinus brutia Ten. A witness forest with mixed species was selected as region potential. Four soil profiles were drilled in each forestation types randomly and were gathered three soil samples from 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm soil depth in each profile. Soil properties including bulk density, percent of saturated moisture, pH, nitrogen, absorbed potassium, calcium and magnesium, organic carbon and soil carbon storage. Two way analysis of variance was applied for investigation of effect forest type on soil properties and carbon storage. Since interaction habitat with soil depth were not significant about soil properties. Mean comparison of soil properties between five habitats and three depths were performed separately. Correlation between carbon storage and other soil properties were calculated in each habitat separately. Then regression models of carbon storage were determined with step by step method. Soil carbon storage had more correlation with nitrogen, (organic carbon and bulk density), organic carbon, magnesium in the witness, Acer velotinum Boiss., Fraxinus excelsior L., Pinus brutia Ten., and Populus nigra L. habitats respectively. The results show that habitat and soil depth had significant effect on carbon storage. Also first depth had most of carbon storage than two other depth but they have not significant different. Carbon storage was most in Acer velotinum Boiss., habitat and low in Populus nigra L., habitat

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Forestation
  • Hardwood
  • Softwood
  • soil properties
  • carbon storage
 

- Abdi, N., Maadah Arefi, H., Zahedi Amiri, Gh., 2008. Estimation of Carbon Sequestration in Astragalus Rangelands of Markazi Province (Case Study: Malmir Rangeland in Shazand Region). Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research 15(2), 269-282 pp. (In persian)

- Aliarab, A., Hosieni, M., Jalali, Gh., 2005. Effects of Acer velotimum Boiss, Populus deltoids Marsh, Robinia pseudacacia L. and Cupressus sempervirens L. on physical and chemical soil properties in east forestation of Haraz. Journal of water and soil science 19(1), 104-113 pp. (In persian)

- Amundson, R., 2001. The carbon budget in soils. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 29, 535–562 pp.

- Augusto, L., Jacques, R., Binkley, D., Roth, A., 2002. Impacts of several common tree species of European temperate forests on soil fertility. Annals of Forest Science. 59, 233-253 pp.

- Barnes, B.V., Zak, D.R., Denton, S.R., Spurr, S.H., 1998. Forest ecology, 4th edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 56 p.

- Batjes, N.H.,1996. Total C and N in soils of the world. European Journal of Soil Science 47, 151–163 pp.

- Birdsey, R.A., 1992. Carbon Storage and Accumulation in United States Forest Ecosystems. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service 12 p.

- Busse, M.D., Sanchez, F.G., Ratcliff, A.W., Butnor, J.R., Carter, E.A., Powers, R.F., 2009. Soil carbon sequestration and changes in fungal and bacterial biomass following incorporation of forest residues. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 41, 220-227 pp.

- Cannel, R., 2003. Carbon sequestration and biomass energy offset: theoretical, potential and achievable opacities’ globally, in Europe and UK. Biomass and Bioenergy 24, 97-116 pp.

- Cannel, M.G.R., Dewar, R.C., 1993. The carbon sinks provided by plantation forests and their Products in Britain. Institute of terrestrial ecology, Scotland, 124 p.

- Chandler, R.F., 1939: Cation exchange properties of certain forest soils in the Adirondack section. J. Agric. Res. 59: 491-505.

-Cheng, C.M., Wang, R.S., Jiang, J.S., 2007. Variation of soil fertility and carbon sequestration by planting Hevea brasiliensis in Hainan Island, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences 19(3), 348-352 pp.

-Dinakaran, J., Krishnayya, N.S.R., 2008. Variations in type of vegetal cover and heterogeneity of soil organic carbon in affecting sink capacity of tropical soils. India Environment Portal by Centre for Science and Environment 94,1144-1150 pp.

- Feruzeh, M., Heshmati, Gh., Ghadirian, Gh., Mesbah, S.H., 2008. Comparing carbon sequestration potential of three shrub species Heliantemum lipii, Dendrostellera lessertii and Artemisia sieberi in arid rangeland of Iran. Journal of environmental of studies 46, 65-72 pp. (In persian)

- Habibi kaseb, H., 1992. Basics of forest pedology. Tehran University Press, 421p. (In Persian)

- Jenny, H., 1994. Factors of Soil Formation. A System of Quantitative Pedology. Dover Press, New York, 191p.

- Jimenez, J.J., Lal, R., Leblanc, H.A., Russo, R.O., 2007. Soil organic carbon pool under native tree plantation in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica. Forest Ecology and Management 241, 134-144 pp.

-Laclau, P., 2003. Biomass and Carbon Sequestration of Ponderosa Pine Plantations and Native Cypress forests in Northwest Patagonia. Forest Ecology and Management, 180, 317-333 pp.

-Lal, R., 2001. The potential of soil carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems to mitigate the greenhouse effect. In: Lal, R. (Ed.), Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect. Soil Science Society of America Special Publication 57. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, 23p.

- Lal, R., 2004. Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. Geoderma 123, 1 -22 pp.

-Mahmoudi Taleghani, E., Zahedi Amiri, Gh., Adeli, E., Sagheb-Talebi, Kh., 2007. Assessment of carbon sequestration in soil layers of managed forest. Iranian journal of forest and populous 15(3), 241-252 pp. (In Persian)

- McCarty, G.W., Ritcher, J.C., 2000. Impact of soil movement on carbon sequestration in agricultural ecosystems. Advances in Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Inventory, Measurements, and Monitoring Conference. In Raleigh, North Carolina, 3-5 pp. (In Persian)

- Nobakht, A., Pourmajidian, M., Hojjati, S.M., Fallah, A., 2011. A comparison of soil carbon sequestration in hardwood and softwood monocultures (Case study: Dehmian forest management plan, Mazandaran). Iranian Journal of Forest 3(1), 13-23 pp. (In Persian)

- Paul K.I., Polglase, P.J., Nyakuengama, J.G., Khanna, P.K., 2002. Change in soil carbon following a forestation. Forest Ecology and Management, 168(1-3), 241-257 pp.

- Schlesinger., 1999. Soil Organic matter a Source of atmospheric CO2. Department of Botany. North Carolina, USA, 111-125 pp.

- Scullberg, U., 1991. Seasonal Variation of PH H2O and PH Cacl2 in centimeter- layers of Moor Humus in a Picea Abies (L.) Karst stand. Sweden University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Site Research, 12 p.

-Schulp Catharina J.E., Naburus, G.J., Verburg, P.H., Waal, R.W., 2008. Effect of tree Species on Carbon Stock in forest floor and mineral soil and implication for soil carbon inventories. Forest Ecology and Management 256, 482-490 pp.

-Singh, G., Singh, N.T., 1993. Mesquite for revegetation of salt lands. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute. Bulletin No, 18, 20-26 pp.

-Singh, G., Bala, N., Chaudhuri, K.K., Meena, R.L., 2003. Carbon sequestration potential of common access resources in arid and semi-arid regions of northwestern India. Indian Forester 129(7), 859-864 pp.

- Varamesh, S., Hosseini, S.M., Abdi, N., Akbarinia, M., 2010. Increment of soil carbon sequestration due to forestation and its relation with some physical and chemical factors of soil. Iranian Journal of Forest 2(1), 25-35 pp. (In Persian)

- Varamesh, S., Hosseini, S.M., Abdi, N., 2011. Effect of forestation with deciduous species on soil carbon sequestration in Chitgar forest park. Journal of soil researches 25(3), 187-196. (In Persian)

- Veldkamp, R.O., 2001. Evaluation of the CO2 Sequestration, Potential of A forestation Projects and Secondary Forest in two different climate zones of South America, Project location in Ecuador and Argentina, 68p.

- Woomer, D., Toure, L., Sall, A., 2004. Carbon stocks in Senegal‘s Sahel transition zone. Journal of Arid Environments 499-510 pp.

- Xiao-Wen, D., Shi-Jie, H., Yan-ling, Z., Yumei, H., 2009. Carbon and Nitrogen Transformations in Surface Soils under Ermans Birch and Dark Coniferous Forests. Pedosphere, 19(2), 230-237 pp.

-Zarinkafsh, M., 2001. Forest pedology. Research Institute of Rangelands and Forests, 361p.