ارزیابی چرخۀ حیات باتری‏های لیتیوم یونی (مطالعۀ موردی: آندهای گرافیت و اکسید کبالت)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری محیط زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه محیط زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

3 استاد گروه محیط زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

4 استادیار پژوهشکدۀ انرژی، پژوهشگاه مواد و انرژی، ایران

چکیده

این روزها به باتری‏های لیتیوم یونی به‌دلیل شدت انرژی بالاتر و آثار زیست‏محیطی کمتر نسبت به باتری‏های استفاده‌شدۀ دیگر، بسیار توجه شده است. مواد استفاده‌شده در آند، یکی از بخش‏های مهم تأثیرگذار بر شدت انرژی و آثار زیست‏محیطی باتری‏ها هستند. هدف از این مطالعه بررسی چگونگی اثرپذیری میزان انتشار آثار زیست‏محیطی ناشی از مواد مختلف استفاده‌شده در آند باتری‏های لیتیوم یونی با افزایش میزان انرژی تولیدی در واحد جرم مادۀ فعال و نیز چگونگی اثر بازیافت مواد بر میزان آثار زیست‏محیطی بالقوۀ ناشی از این باتری‏هاست. در این مطالعه میزان وزنی اولیۀ اجزای مورد ‏نیاز برای سناریوهای مختلف بر‌اساس تجربیات آزمایشگاهی، منابع و گزارش‌های مستند‏شده تعیین شد. سپس بر‌اساس واحد عملکردی تعیین‏شده که در این مطالعه 1000 میلی‏آمپر ساعت انرژی تولیدی توسط مادۀ فعال آند باتری در ‏نظر گرفته شده است، داده‏های وزنی اولیه نرمال شدند و پس از آن همۀ آثار زیست‏محیطی و مصرف انرژی مربوط به تمام اجزای تشکیل‏دهنده و استفاده‌شده در باتری شامل مادۀ فعال (همان مادۀ آند سنتزی)، مواد الکترولیت شامل LiPF6 در حلال NMP، اتیلن‏کربنات، دی‏متیل‏ کربنات و بایندر توسط داده‏های به‏دست‏آمده از مدل GREET2 سیاهه‏نویسی شدند. پس از طبقه‏بندی، ویژگی‏سازی بر‏اساس فاکتورهای ویژگی‏سازی روش CML و در‌نهایت وزن‏دهی آثار زیست‏محیطی مختلف بر‏اساس روش مدل‌سازی MET صورت گرفت. بررسی نتایج ارزیابی آثار زیست‏محیطی باتری‏های با آند گرافیت و اکسید کبالت نشان می‏دهد که باتری‏های با آند اکسید کبالت آثار گازهای گلخانه‏ای، گازهای اسیدی، مه‏دود فتوشیمیایی و مصرف انرژی بیشتری نسبت به باتری‏های با آند گرافیت دارند. در مقابل، آثار باتری‏های با آند اکسید کبالت در صورت بازیافت می‏تواند به‌شکل قابل‏توجهی کاهش یابد و در‌نتیجه می‏توان به باتری‏های کوچک‏تر با وزن کمتر و شدت انرژی بیشتر با آثار زیست‏محیطی کمتر دست یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Life Cycle Assessment of Li-ion Batteries (Case Study: Anodes with Graphite and Cobalt Oxide)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Padashbarmchi 1
  • Amir Hossein Hamidian 2
  • Nematolah Khorasani 3
  • Mahmood Kazemzad 4
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran Iran
2 Assisstant Professor, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran
3 Professor, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran
4 Assisstant Professor, Department of Energy, Materials and Energy Research Center, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Lithium-ion batteries due to their higher energy density and lower associated environmental impacts comparing to the other batteries, recently have been highly considered. The materials used in anode, are one of the most important parts affecting batteries’ energy density and environmental impacts. The aim of this study is to investigate how environmental emissions of different materials as anode for li-ion batteries can be influenced by increasing the produced energy per mass unit of active material and also how battery recycling can change the potential environmental impacts caused by batteries. In this study, the primary weight of components needed for different scenarios was identified according to the laboratory experiences, resources and literatures. Then, the primary weight data were normalized based on the identified functional unit which in this study proposed to be 1000 mAh energy produced by anode active material of battery and the inventories of all the environmental impacts and energy use related to the all components used in battery including active material (synthesized anode material), electrolyte materials (LiPF6 in NMP, ethylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate) and binder were prepared using GREET2 model’s data. After classification, characterization was done based on characterization factors of CML method and finally weighting of different environmental impacts was done based on MET modeling method. The investigation of environmental impacts of batteries with graphite and cobalt oxide anode shows that batteries with cobalt oxide anode have higher greenhouse gas effects, acid gases, photochemical smog and energy use comparing to the batteries with graphite anode. On the other hand, the impacts of batteries with cobalt oxide anode when recycled can significantly decreased and therefore, it can be possible to achieve batteries with smaller size, lower weight and higher energy density with lower environmental impacts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • LCA
  • Lithium-Ion Battery
  • battery anodes
  • Energy
  • recycling

 

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