ارزیابی کارایی شاخص‏های زیستی یگانه و چندگانۀ بزرگ بی‏مهرگان کفزی برای تعیین کیفیت آب (مطالعۀ موردی رودخانۀ جاجرود)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه شهید بهشتی -پژوهشکده علوم محیطی

2 دانشیار گروه تنوع زیستی و مدیریت اکوسیستم‏ها، پژوهشکدۀ علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

3 استادیار گروه آلاینده‏های محیط زیست، پژوهشکدۀ علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

بزرگ بی‏مهرگان کفزی، شاخص‏های سودمندی برای ارزیابی تأثیرات آشفتگی‏ها بر حوضۀ آبخیز و رودخانه هستند زیرا آن‏ها بسیاری از فرایند‏های اکولوژیکی را در مقیاس حوضۀ آبخیز یکپارچه می‏کنند. در این پژوهش کاربرد شاخص‏های زیستی ماکروبنتوز یگانه و مولتی‏متریک برای ارزیابی زیستی رودخانۀ جاجرود بررسی شده است. به این منظور از شش ایستگاه مطالعاتی طی چهار فصل نمونه‏های آب و بزرگ بی‏مهرگان کفزی جمع‏آوری شد. نتایج نشان داد Chironomidae بیشترین فراوانی نسبی را در منطقۀ مطالعاتی دارد و شاخص‏های زیستی هیلسنهوف و BMWP/ASPT برای ارزیابی کیفیت آب رودخانۀ جاجرود مناسب‌اند. برای کاربرد شاخص‏های مولتی‏متریک نیاز است با توجه به شرایط جغرافیایی و فیزیکوشیمیایی رودخانه‏های ایران، سازگاری و کالیبراسیون لازم انجام گیرد. نتایج ترکیبی از شاخص‏های زیستی نشان داد ایستگاه‏های واقع در مناطق مسکونی نسبت به ایستگاه‏های بالادست آلودگی بیشتری دارند و کنترل و مدیریت منابع آلاینده برای حفاظت از منطقۀ مطالعه‌شده لازم است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of single- and multi-metric benthic macroinvertebrate indices for water quality monitoring, case study Jajrood River

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zeynab Shirchi Sasi 1
  • Asghar Abdoli 2
  • Hossein Hashemi 3
1 Masters of Environmental Engineering, Environmental Science Institue, Shahid Beheshti University
2 Associate Professor, Department of biodiversity and Ecosystem Management, Environmental Science Institue, Shahid Beheshti University
3 Assisstant professor, Department of Environmental Pollutant, Environmental Science Institue, Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

Benthic macroinvertebrates in river are useful indicators for adverse impacts on the catchment and river ecosystems. These organisms integrate many ecological processes in catchment scale. In this study several single and multi metric biotic indices were used based on macroinvertebrates in order to evaluate the water quality of Jajrood river. Macroinvertebrates as well as water samples were collected in six stations seasonally. The results showed that the Chironomidae family had the most relative abundance and Hilsenhoff biotic index and BMWP/ASPT are most appropriate biotic indices for evaluation of Jajrood River water quality. The adjustment and calibration ofindicesbased on geographical condition as well as physiochemical parameters of Iran rivers is required in order to apply the multimetric index.The result of various biotic indices showed that stations located in the residential areas compared to the stations located in the upstream were more polluted.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Benthic Macroinvertebrate
  • Biological assessment
  • Multimetric Index
  • Jajrood River
-         Ahmadi, M. R. and Nafisi, M., 2001. Identification of running water invertebrates indicator. Kheybar Press. First volume, 240p. (in Persian).

-         Armitage, P., Cranston, P.S. and Pinder, L.C.V., 1995. The Chironomidae: the Biology and ecology of non-biting midge. Chapman & Hall, New York.

-         Armitage, P.D., Moss, D., Wright, J.F. and Furse, M.T., 1983. The performance of a new biological water quality score based on macroinvertebrates over a wide range of unpolluted running-water sites. Water Resource. 17, 333-347.

-         Azrina, M. Z., Yap, C. K., Rahim Ismail, A., Tan, S. G., 2005. Anthropogenic impacts on the distribution and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality of the Langat River, Peninsular Malaysia, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 64(2006) 337-347.

-         Barbour, M.T., Gerritsen, J., Snyder, B.D. and Stribling, J.B., 1999. Rapid bioassessment protocols for use in streams and river: Pryphyton, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and fish, 2nd edition, EPA, 841 – B-99-002 USEPA, Washington D.C. 408p.

-         Bass, D., 1995. Species composition of aquatic macroinvertebrates and environmental conditions in cucumber creek, Proc. Okla. Sci. 75:39. 46.

-         Friedrich, G., Chapman, D., and Beim, A., 1996. The Use of Biological Material in Water Quality Assessments: A Guide to the Use of Biota, Sediments and Water in Environmental Monitoring, 2nd ed. Deborah Chapman (ed). E & FN Spon, New York.

-         Gabriels, W., Lock, K., De Pauw, N., and Goethals, P.L.M., 2010. Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index Flanders (MMIF) for biological assessment of rivers and lakes in Flanders (Belgium). Limnologica 40 (2010) 199-207.

-         Grbovi, S., Walley, J., Kompare, B., 1997. Using machine learning techniques in the construction of models. Part II: Rule induction. Ecology Modeling. 1997. 95:95-111.

-         Hall, L.W., Author, Reprint Author Hall Lenwood, W.J., 2006. Characterization of benthic communities and physical habitat in the Stanislaus, Tuolumne, and Merced Rivers, California. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 115, 223-264.

-         Hartmann, A., 2007. Field key for selected benthic invertebrates from the HKN region. Draft version February 2007.

-         Hashemi, S. H., Pourasghar, F., Nasrabadi, T., Ramezani, S., Khoshrou, Gh., 2011. Guide to Iran Water Quality Index for Surface Water Resources-Conventional Parameters, (in Persian).

-         Hilsenhoff, W.L., 1988. Rapid field assessment of organic pollution with a family-level biotic index. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 7(1):65-68.

-         Hynes, H.B., 1970. The ecology of Running Water, University of Toronto Press, Canada. 555p.

-         Kamali, M. and Esmaeeli Sari, A., 2009. Biological assessment of Lasem River (Amol city, Mazandaran province) by using benthic macroinvertebrate population structure. Journal of Environmental Sciences, Lahijan unit, Vol.3, No. 1, 2009, (in Persian).

-         Karr, J.R. 1991. Biological integrity: a long-neglected aspect of water resource management. Ecol. Appl. 1, 66-84.

-         Karr, J.R., 1998. River as senitle: Using the biology of rivers to guide landscape management, final report for USEPA, 28p.

-         Koryciǹska, M. and Królak, E., 2006. The Use of Various Biotic Indices for Evaluation of Water Quality in the Lowland Rivers of Poland (Exemplified by the Liwiec River). Polish J. of Environ. Stud. Vol 15, No. 3(2006), 419-428.

-         Kurtenbach, J., 1991. A method for rapid bioassessment of streams in New Jersey using benthic macroinvertebrates. Bull. N. Am. Benth. Soc. 8(1):129.

-         Langdon, P. G., Ruiz, Z., Brodersen, K. P., Foster, I. D. L., 2006. Assessing lake eutrophication using chironomids: understanding the nature of community response in different lake types. Freshwater biology. 51: 562-577.

-         Lücke, J.D. and Johnson, R.K., 2009. Detection of ecological change in stream macroinvertebrate assemblages using single metric, multimetric or multivariate approach. Ecological Indicators 9(2009) 659-669.

-         Maloney, K. O. and Feminella, J. W., 2006. Evaluation of single- and multi- metric benthic macroinvertebrate indicators of catchment disturbance over time at the Fort Benning Military Installation, Georgia, USA. Ecological Indicators 6 (2006) 469-484.

-         Naderi Jelodar, M., Abdoli, A., Mirzakhani, M. K., and Sharifi Jlodar, R., 2011. Response of benthic macroinvertebrates to (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture effluent. Journal of Fishery, Natural Resources, Vol. 64, No.2, 2011, pp. 163-176.

-         Needham, J., and Needham, P.R. 1976. A guide to the study of fresh-water biology. Fifth edition, revised and enlarged. Holden-Day, INC., Sanfrancisco.

-         Needham, J.G. and Needham, P.R., 1962. A guide to the study of Fersh-water Biology. 5th ed. Holden-Day, Inc. X, 108p.

-         Norris, R. H. and Barbour, M.T., 2009. Bioassessment of aquatic Ecosystems. In: Encyclopedia od Inland Waters. Likens G. E. (ed), pp. 21-28, Elsevier, Oxford.

-         Pipan, T., 2000. Biological Assessment of Stream Water Quality the example of the Reka River (Slovenia), ACTA CARSOLOGICA, 29, 1(15): 201-222.

-         Pyung-Rim, C., Aw, S.J., Kim, J.J., and Choi, S.K., (1998). Biotic Index as Assessment Tools of Water Quality in the Han River System, Korea. Korean J. Ecol., 21(6): 759-770.

-         Quiyley, M., 1977. Invertebrates of streams and rivers. Edward Arnold (1977).

-         Rey Ab Consulting Engineers, 2009. Report of Upgrade Study of Pollution Resources in the Basin of Jajrood River. Second Volume: Consolidated- Revised, (in Persian).

-         Rezaee Tavabe, K., Azad, L.T. and Fazlolahi, A., 2008. Biological Evaluation of Darjazin River at Semnan Providence of Iran. ICCBT 2008-D-(11)pp115-120.

-         Rosenberg, D.M., 1999. Protocols for Measuring Biodiversity: Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Freshwaters, Department of Fisheries and Ocean, Freshwater Institute, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 42p.

-         Sharma, S., and Moog, O., 1998. The Use of Biotic Index and Score Methods in Biological Water Quality Assessment of the Nepalese River. In: Chalise, S.R., Herrmann, A., Khanal, N. R., et al., eds., Ecohydrology of High Mountain Area. ICIMOD, Kathmandu, Nepal. 641-657.

-         Sioli, H., 1975. Tropical Rivers as Expressions of their Terrestrial and Aquatic Research, Springer varleg     New York, pp: 275-278.

-         Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1999. Copyright 1999 by American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation.

-         Svensoon, J.M., Bergman, E. and Andersoon, G., 1999. Impact of cyprinid reduction on the benthic macroinvertebrate community and implications for increased nitrogen retention. Hydrobiologia, 404: 99-112.

-         Tachet, H., Bournaud, M., and Richoux, P., 1996. Introduction à lʼ étude des eaux douces (systématique élémentaire et aperҫu écologique). Centre Régional de Documentation Pedagogique, de IʼAcadémic de Lyon, France.

-         Vlek, H. E., Verdonschot, P. F. M. and Nijboer, R. C., 2004. Towards a multimetric index for the assessment of Dutch streams using benthic macroinvertebrates. Hydrobiologia 516, 173-189 (special issue: Integrated Assessment of Running Waters in Eurpoe (Guest Editors: D. Hering, P. F. M. Verdonschot, O. Moog, L. Sandin)).