بررسی تغییرات پوشش گیاهی و تنوع گونه‏ای زیستگاه‏های سواحل ذخیره‏ گاه زیست‌کرۀ میانکاله با استفاده از ترانسکت‏های اکولوژیک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیارگروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکدۀ علوم، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت

2 دانشیارگروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکدۀ علوم پایه، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشدگروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکدۀ علوم، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت

چکیده

ذخیره‌گاه زیست‌کرۀ میانکاله با مجموعۀ متنوعی از اکوسیستم‌های آبی و خشکی با وسعتی معادل 67349 هکتار در دورترین نقطۀ جنوب شرقی دریای خزر واقع شده است. با توجه به اهمیت اکوسیستم‌های ساحلی این ذخیره‌گاه، به‌منزلۀ زیر‌مجموعه‌ای از سواحل جنوبی دریای خزر لازم است تا نقش عوامل اکولوژیکی و تأثیر آن‌ها بر پراکنش و تنوع گونه‌ای گیاهان بررسی شود. بدین منظور این پژوهش با هدف شناخت گیاهان ساحلی، زیستگاه‌ها، بررسی تأثیر عوامل محیطی (میزان شیب، جهت شیب و برخی فاکتورهای شیمیایی خاک) بر پوشش گیاهی و تعیین مهم‌ترین خصوصیات محیطی مؤثر بر استقرار آن‌ها به انجام رسید. ویژگی‌های زیستگاهی و محیطی، در طول سه ترانسکت با استفاده از تکنیک رده‌بندی TWINSPAN، آنالیز رسته‌بندی شیب غیر‌مستقیم DCA و آنالیز ANOVA یک‌طرفه ارزیابی شدند. نتایج حاصل از آنالیز رسته‌بندی DCA با انجام آزمون‌های دقیق آماری ارزیابی شد. در این پژوهش شش زیستگاه به همراه هشت گروه گونه‌ای اکولوژیک از 314 گونۀ گیاهی در سواحل ذخیره‌گاه زیست‌کرۀ میانکاله تشخیص داده شد. با توجه به آنالیزها، هدایت الکتریکی (EC) و اسیدیتۀ (pH) خاک به‌ترتیب مهم‌ترین عوامل تأثیر‌گذار بر استقرار پوشش گیاهی در زیستگاه‌های مختلف منطقه هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The study of variation of vegetation and plant diversity in coastal habitats of Miankaleh Biosphere Reserve using ecological transects

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahryar Saeidi Mehrvarz 1
  • Alireza Naqinezhad 2
  • Zeynab Kazemi Gorji 3
1 Shahryar Saeidi Mehrvarz1 1Associate Prof., Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht
2 Associate Prof., Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht
3 MSc student, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht
چکیده [English]

Miankaleh Biosphere Reserve it has a set of marine and land ecosystems an area about 67349 ha and is located in the north of Iran and Southeast farthermost of Caspian Sea. The diversity of the natural characteristics of Caspian region is the cause of diversity in the habitats, and has resulted in nesting of most plant species in the germinative range. Regarding the importance of coastal ecosystem of Miankaleh Biosphere Reserve as a sub region of southern Caspian Sea it is necessary to consider and investigate the role of ecological factors and their effects in the variance and diversity of the plant species. For this purpose this research has been conducted to identify the coastal plants and the effect of their geographical distributions and life forms; the effect of various environmental factors (slope, exposition, some chemical properties of soils) on the vegetation and determination of most effective environmental characteristics in their estabilishment is also studied. Plant diversity, habitat and environmental characteristics have been evaluated through three transects using TWINSPAN rating technique, DCA rating analysis and ANOVA analysis. In order to investigating the significancy and not-significancy of these results, the results obtained from DCA rating analysis have been assessed through conducting some accurate tests. In this study, six habitats along with eight Ecological species groups for the 314 species in the investigated area were identified.EC and pH in soils were the most important effective factors on the settlement of vegetations in different regions, respectively.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Miankaleh Biosphere Reserve
  • Coastal ecosystems
  • Transect
  • ANOVA
  • TWINSPAN
  • DCA
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