مدلسازی مطلوبیت لانه گزینی و شناسایی حداقل نیازهای زیستگاهی مکان های لانه گزیی گرگ (canis lupus) در استان همدان با استفاده از روش ماهالانوبیس پارتیشن بندی شده

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد، گروه محیط زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار، گروه محیط زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار گروه محیط زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

مدلسازی زیستگاه در محل‌های لانه‏گزینی گونه‏های حیات وحش ابزاری کاربردی در شناسایی نحوۀ توزیع کانون‏های فعالیت‏ آن‌هاست. از این‏رو این ابزار در شناسایی نواحی‌ای که پتانسیل بالایی در بروز تقابل این گونه‏ها با انسان دارند، کاربردهای فراوانی دارد. در این پژوهش با استفاده از مدل ماهالانوبیس پارتیشن‏بندی شده و با در نظر گرفتن فاکتورهای مهم زیستگاهی اثر‌گذار، مطلوبیت مکان‏های لانه‏گزینی گرگ در استان همدان ارزیابی شد. همچنین از منحنی توزیع تجمعی مقادیر مطلوبیت برای طبقه‏بندی نقشۀ حاصل به طبقات مطلوبیت استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که آستانۀ مطلوبیت 71/0 به بهترین نحو نواحی مطلوب را از زیستگاه نامطلوب تفکیک کرد و بدین ترتیب 2649 کیلومتر‌مربع معادل 5/13‌درصد از سطح استان همدان به‌منزلۀ نواحی‌ای که پتانسیل لانه‏گزینی گرگ دارند، شناسایی شد. همچنین بر‌اساس نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از آزمون تجزیه به مؤلفه‏های اصلی، متغیرهای ارتفاع، سنجۀ بردار ناهمواری‏ها، تراکم دام و فاصله از نواحی مسکونی به‌منزلۀ عوامل مهم محیطی تأمین‌کنندۀ حداقل نیازهای زیستگاه لانه‏گزینی گرگ در این استان تعیین شدند. معیارهای بررسی اعتبار مدل به‌دست‌آمده، چه از لحاظ قابلیت تشخیص (سطح زیر نمودار برابر با 825/0) و چه از لحاظ صحت طبقه‏بندی (نرخ کلی صحت طبقه‏بندی برابر با 84/0)، نشان داد که مدل مطلوبیت به‌دست‌آمده عملکرد خوبی در پیش‏بینی نواحی لانه‏گزینی دارد. لانه‏گزینی گرگ در مناطق ناهموار نسبتاً مرتفع (1870‌ـ 2405)، نزدیک به اراضی مرتعی و بایر و به دور از نواحی مسکونی نشان می‏دهد که نحوۀ توزیع لانه‏های گرگ در استان همدان در درجۀ اول متأثر از فاکتورهای مرتبط با مداخلات انسانی است.‌

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Modelling denning suitability and identifying minimum characteristic requirements of Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) den sites Hamedan province using partititned Mahalanobis method

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Ahmadi 1
  • Mohammad Kaboli 2
  • Afshin Alizadeh Shabani 3
  • Sohrab ashrafi 3
1 1M.Sc., Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

-   Ahmadi, M., Kaboli, M., Imani Harsini, J., Khosravi Sharifabadi, R., Almasi, M., 2012. Strategic Management Plan for Wolf (Canis lupus) in Hamedan Province: An Approach to Reducing Human-Wolf Conflicts. Journal of Natural Environment, Iranian Journal of Natural Resources. 65, 271–281.
-   Ballard, W.B., Dau, J.R., 1983. Characteristics of gray wolf, Canis lupus, den and rendezvous sites in Southcentral Alaska. Canadian Field-Naturalist 97, 299–302.
-   Baldwin, A.R., Bender, L.C., 2008. Den-Site Characteristics of Black Bears in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management 72, 1717–1724.
-   Boyce, M.S., Vernier, P.R., Nielsen, S.E., Schmiegelow, F.K.A., 2002. Evaluating resource selection functions. Ecological Modelling 157, 281–300.
-   Browning, D.M., Beaupres, S.J., Duncan, L., 2005. Using Partitioned Mahalanobis D2 (K) To Formulate a GIS based Model of Timber Rattelsnake Hibernacula. Journal of Wildlife Management 69, 33–44.
-   Cayuela, L., 2004. Habitat evaluation for the Iberian wolf (Canis lupus) in Picos de Europa National Park, Spain. Applied Geography 24, 199–215.
-   Ciarniello, L.M., Boyce, M.S., Heard, D.C., Seip, D.R., 2005. Denning behavior and den site selection of grizzly bears along the Parsnip River, British Columbia, Canada. Ursus 16, 47–58.
-   Clark, J.D., Dunn, J.E., Smith, K.G., 1993. A multivariate model of female black bear habitat use for a geographic information system. Journal of Wildlife Management 57, 519–526.
-   Corsi, F., Dupre, E., Boitani, L., 1998. A Large-Scale Model of Wolf Distribution in Italy for Conservation Planning. Conservation Biology 13, 150–159.
-   Dunn, J.E., Duncan, L., 2000. Partitioning Mahalanobis D2 to sharpen GIS classification. In: Brebbia, C.A., Pascolo, P. (Eds.), Management information systems: GIS and remote sensing. WIT Press, Southampton, UK, pp 195–204
-   Elith, J., Phillips, S.J., Hastie, T., Dudik, M., Chee, Y.E., et al., 2011. A statistical explanation of MaxEnt for ecologists. Diversity and Distribution 17, 43–57.
-   Fielding, A.H., Bell, J.F., 1997. A review of methods for the assessment of prediction errors in conservation presence/absence models. Environment Conservation 24, 38–49.
-   Harrington, F.H., Mech, L.D., 1982. Patterns of homesite attendance in two Minnesota wolf packs. In: Harrington, F.H., Paquet, P.C. (Eds.), Wolves of the world: perspectives of behavior, ecology, and conservation. Noyes Publications, New Jersey, USA, pp. 81–104.
-   Hollenbeck, J.P., Saab, V.A., Frenzel, R.W., 2011. Habitat Suitability and Nest Survival of White-Headed Woodpeckers in Unburned Forests of Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management 75, 1061–1071.
-   Jędrzejewski, W., Jędrzejewska, B., Zawadzka, B., Borowik, T., Nowak, S., Myszajek, R.W., 2008. Habitat suitability model for Polish wolves based on long term national census. Animal Conservation 11, 377–390.
-   Jenness, J., Brost, B., Beier, P., 2011. Land Facet Corridor Designer. Available in: http://www.corridordesign.org.
-   Jiménez-Valverde, A., 2012. Insights into the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) as a discrimination measure in species distribution modelling. Global Ecology and Biogeography 21, 498–507.
-   Kuemmerle, T., et al., 2011. Predicting potential European bison habitat across its former range. Ecological Application 21, 830–843.
-   Kusak, J., Skrbinsek, A.M., Huber, D., 2005. Home ranges movements, and activity of wolves (Canis lupus) in the Dalmatian part of Dinarids, Croatia. European Journal of Wildlife Research 51, 254–262.
-   Libal, N.S., Belant, J.L., Leopold, B.D., Wang, G., Owen, P.A., 2011. Despotism and Risk of Infanticide Influence Grizzly Bear Den-Site Selection. PLoS ONE 6, e24133.
-   Linnell, J.D.C., 2000. The Fear of Wolves: A Review of Wolf Attacks on Humans, Norsk Institutt for Nature forskning.
-   Linnell, J.D.C., Aanes, R., Swenson, J.E., Odden, J., Smith, M.E., 1997. Translocation of carnivores as a method for managing problem animals: a review. Biodiversity Conservation 6, 1245–1257.
-   Lobo, J., Jiménez-Valverde, A., Real, R., 2008. AUC: a misleading measure of the performance of predictive distribution models. Global Ecology and Biogeography 17, 145–151.
-   Matteson, M.Y., 1992. Denning ecology of wolves in Northwest Montana and southern Canadian Rockies. Dissertation, University of Montana, Missoula.
-   Mech, L.D., 1995. The challenge and opportunity of recovering wolf populations. Conservation Biology 9, 270–278.
-   Mech, L.D., Boitani, L., 2003. Wolves: Behavior, Ecology and Conservation. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
-   Mladenoff, D.J., Sickley, T.A., Wydeven, A., 1999. Predicting Gray Wolf Landscape Recolonization: Logistic regression models vs. new field data. Ecological Application 9, 37–44.
-   Norris, D.F., Theberge, M.T., Theberge, J.B., 2002. Forest composition around wolf (Canis lupus) dens in eastern Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80, 866–872.
-   Northrup, J.M., Stenhouse, G.B., Boyce, M.S., 2012. Agricultural lands as ecological traps for grizzly bears. Animal Conservation 15, 369–377.
-   Person, D.K., Russell, A.L., 2009. Reproduction and Den Site Selection by Wolves in a Disturbed Landscape. Northwest Sciences 83, 211–224.
-   Podruzny, S.R., Cherry, S., Schwartz, C.C., Landenburger, L.A., 2002. Grizzly bear denning and potential conflict areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Ursus 13, 19–28.
-   Reyahi-Khoram, M., Fotros, M.H., 2011. Land use planning of Hamadan province by means of GIS. International Conference on Chemical, Biological and Environment Sciences (ICCEBS'2011) Bangkok.
-   Rich, L.N., Mitchell, M.S., Gude, J.A., Sime, C.A., 2012. Anthropogenic mortality, intraspecific competition, and prey availability influence territory sizes of wolves in Montana. Journal of Mammalogy 93, 722–731.
-   Romero, D., Olivero, J., Real, R., 2012. Comparative assessment of different methods for using landcover variables for distribution modelling of Salamandra salamandra longirotris. Environment Conservation 53, 1–12.
-   Rotenberry, J.T., Preston, K.L., Knick, S.T., 2006. GIS-Based Niche Modelling For Mapping Spcies’ Habitat. Ecology 87, 1458–1464.
-   Salvatori, V., Linnell, J., 2005. Report on the conservation status and threats for wolf (Canis lupus) in Europe. T-PVS/Inf. Report 16. Strasbourg, Council of Europe. 1–24.
-   Sappington, M., Longshore, K.M., Thompson, D.B., 2007. Quantifying Landscape Ruggedness for Animal Habitat Analysis: A Case Study Using Bighorn Sheep in the Mojave Desert. Journal of Wildlife Management 71, 1419–1426.
-   Smith, D.W., et al., 2010. Survival of colonizing wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains of the United States, 1982–2004. Journal of Wildlife Management 74, 620–634.
-   Theuerkauf, J.J., drzejewski, W., Schmidt, K., Okarma, H., Ruczynski, I., Sniezko, S., Gula R., 2003. Daily patterns and duration of wolf activity in the Białowieza forest, Poland. Journal of Mammalogy 84, 243– 253.
-   Theuerkauf, J., Gula, R., Pirga, B., Tsunoda, H., Eggermann, J., Brzezowska, B., Rouys, S., Radler, S., 2007. Human impact on wolf activity in the Bieszczady Mountains, SE Poland. Annual Zoology Fennecci. 44, 225–231.
-   Trapp, J.R., Beier, P., Mack, C., Parsons, D.R., Paquet, P.C., 2008. Wolf, Canis lupus, den site selection in the Rocky Mountains. Canadian Field-Naturalist 122, 49–56.
-   Treves, A., Martin, K.A., Wydeven, A.P., Wiedenhoeft, J.E., 2011. Forecasting Environmental Hazards and the Application of Risk Maps to Predator Attacks on Livestock. BioScience 61, 451–458.
Unger, D.E., Keenlance, P.W., Kohn, B.E., Anderson, E.M., 2009. Factors Influencing Homesite Selection by Gray Wolves in Northwestern Wisconsinand East-Central Minnesota. In: Wydeven. A.P., et al. (Eds.), Recovery of Gray Wolves in the Great Lakes Region of the United States. Springer Science + Business Media, pp. 175–189

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Habitat assessment
  • denning sites
  • Vector Ruggedness Measure
  • Human Intrusion
  • Human-wolf conflicts
-   Ahmadi, M., Kaboli, M., Imani Harsini, J., Khosravi Sharifabadi, R., Almasi, M., 2012. Strategic Management Plan for Wolf (Canis lupus) in Hamedan Province: An Approach to Reducing Human-Wolf Conflicts. Journal of Natural Environment, Iranian Journal of Natural Resources. 65, 271–281.

-   Ballard, W.B., Dau, J.R., 1983. Characteristics of gray wolf, Canis lupus, den and rendezvous sites in Southcentral Alaska. Canadian Field-Naturalist 97, 299–302.

-   Baldwin, A.R., Bender, L.C., 2008. Den-Site Characteristics of Black Bears in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management 72, 1717–1724.

-   Boyce, M.S., Vernier, P.R., Nielsen, S.E., Schmiegelow, F.K.A., 2002. Evaluating resource selection functions. Ecological Modelling 157, 281–300.

-   Browning, D.M., Beaupres, S.J., Duncan, L., 2005. Using Partitioned Mahalanobis D2 (K) To Formulate a GIS based Model of Timber Rattelsnake Hibernacula. Journal of Wildlife Management 69, 33–44.

-   Cayuela, L., 2004. Habitat evaluation for the Iberian wolf (Canis lupus) in Picos de Europa National Park, Spain. Applied Geography 24, 199–215.

-   Ciarniello, L.M., Boyce, M.S., Heard, D.C., Seip, D.R., 2005. Denning behavior and den site selection of grizzly bears along the Parsnip River, British Columbia, Canada. Ursus 16, 47–58.

-   Clark, J.D., Dunn, J.E., Smith, K.G., 1993. A multivariate model of female black bear habitat use for a geographic information system. Journal of Wildlife Management 57, 519–526.

-   Corsi, F., Dupre, E., Boitani, L., 1998. A Large-Scale Model of Wolf Distribution in Italy for Conservation Planning. Conservation Biology 13, 150–159.

-   Dunn, J.E., Duncan, L., 2000. Partitioning Mahalanobis D2 to sharpen GIS classification. In: Brebbia, C.A., Pascolo, P. (Eds.), Management information systems: GIS and remote sensing. WIT Press, Southampton, UK, pp 195–204

-   Elith, J., Phillips, S.J., Hastie, T., Dudik, M., Chee, Y.E., et al., 2011. A statistical explanation of MaxEnt for ecologists. Diversity and Distribution 17, 43–57.

-   Fielding, A.H., Bell, J.F., 1997. A review of methods for the assessment of prediction errors in conservation presence/absence models. Environment Conservation 24, 38–49.

-   Harrington, F.H., Mech, L.D., 1982. Patterns of homesite attendance in two Minnesota wolf packs. In: Harrington, F.H., Paquet, P.C. (Eds.), Wolves of the world: perspectives of behavior, ecology, and conservation. Noyes Publications, New Jersey, USA, pp. 81–104.

-   Hollenbeck, J.P., Saab, V.A., Frenzel, R.W., 2011. Habitat Suitability and Nest Survival of White-Headed Woodpeckers in Unburned Forests of Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management 75, 1061–1071.

-   Jędrzejewski, W., Jędrzejewska, B., Zawadzka, B., Borowik, T., Nowak, S., Myszajek, R.W., 2008. Habitat suitability model for Polish wolves based on long term national census. Animal Conservation 11, 377–390.

-   Jenness, J., Brost, B., Beier, P., 2011. Land Facet Corridor Designer. Available in: http://www.corridordesign.org.

-   Jiménez-Valverde, A., 2012. Insights into the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) as a discrimination measure in species distribution modelling. Global Ecology and Biogeography 21, 498–507.

-   Kuemmerle, T., et al., 2011. Predicting potential European bison habitat across its former range. Ecological Application 21, 830–843.

-   Kusak, J., Skrbinsek, A.M., Huber, D., 2005. Home ranges movements, and activity of wolves (Canis lupus) in the Dalmatian part of Dinarids, Croatia. European Journal of Wildlife Research 51, 254–262.

-   Libal, N.S., Belant, J.L., Leopold, B.D., Wang, G., Owen, P.A., 2011. Despotism and Risk of Infanticide Influence Grizzly Bear Den-Site Selection. PLoS ONE 6, e24133.

-   Linnell, J.D.C., 2000. The Fear of Wolves: A Review of Wolf Attacks on Humans, Norsk Institutt for Nature forskning.

-   Linnell, J.D.C., Aanes, R., Swenson, J.E., Odden, J., Smith, M.E., 1997. Translocation of carnivores as a method for managing problem animals: a review. Biodiversity Conservation 6, 1245–1257.

-   Lobo, J., Jiménez-Valverde, A., Real, R., 2008. AUC: a misleading measure of the performance of predictive distribution models. Global Ecology and Biogeography 17, 145–151.

-   Matteson, M.Y., 1992. Denning ecology of wolves in Northwest Montana and southern Canadian Rockies. Dissertation, University of Montana, Missoula.

-   Mech, L.D., 1995. The challenge and opportunity of recovering wolf populations. Conservation Biology 9, 270–278.

-   Mech, L.D., Boitani, L., 2003. Wolves: Behavior, Ecology and Conservation. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

-   Mladenoff, D.J., Sickley, T.A., Wydeven, A., 1999. Predicting Gray Wolf Landscape Recolonization: Logistic regression models vs. new field data. Ecological Application 9, 37–44.

-   Norris, D.F., Theberge, M.T., Theberge, J.B., 2002. Forest composition around wolf (Canis lupus) dens in eastern Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80, 866–872.

-   Northrup, J.M., Stenhouse, G.B., Boyce, M.S., 2012. Agricultural lands as ecological traps for grizzly bears. Animal Conservation 15, 369–377.

-   Person, D.K., Russell, A.L., 2009. Reproduction and Den Site Selection by Wolves in a Disturbed Landscape. Northwest Sciences 83, 211–224.

-   Podruzny, S.R., Cherry, S., Schwartz, C.C., Landenburger, L.A., 2002. Grizzly bear denning and potential conflict areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Ursus 13, 19–28.

-   Reyahi-Khoram, M., Fotros, M.H., 2011. Land use planning of Hamadan province by means of GIS. International Conference on Chemical, Biological and Environment Sciences (ICCEBS'2011) Bangkok.

-   Rich, L.N., Mitchell, M.S., Gude, J.A., Sime, C.A., 2012. Anthropogenic mortality, intraspecific competition, and prey availability influence territory sizes of wolves in Montana. Journal of Mammalogy 93, 722–731.

-   Romero, D., Olivero, J., Real, R., 2012. Comparative assessment of different methods for using landcover variables for distribution modelling of Salamandra salamandra longirotris. Environment Conservation 53, 1–12.

-   Rotenberry, J.T., Preston, K.L., Knick, S.T., 2006. GIS-Based Niche Modelling For Mapping Spcies’ Habitat. Ecology 87, 1458–1464.

-   Salvatori, V., Linnell, J., 2005. Report on the conservation status and threats for wolf (Canis lupus) in Europe. T-PVS/Inf. Report 16. Strasbourg, Council of Europe. 1–24.

-   Sappington, M., Longshore, K.M., Thompson, D.B., 2007. Quantifying Landscape Ruggedness for Animal Habitat Analysis: A Case Study Using Bighorn Sheep in the Mojave Desert. Journal of Wildlife Management 71, 1419–1426.

-   Smith, D.W., et al., 2010. Survival of colonizing wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains of the United States, 1982–2004. Journal of Wildlife Management 74, 620–634.

-   Theuerkauf, J.J., drzejewski, W., Schmidt, K., Okarma, H., Ruczynski, I., Sniezko, S., Gula R., 2003. Daily patterns and duration of wolf activity in the Białowieza forest, Poland. Journal of Mammalogy 84, 243– 253.

-   Theuerkauf, J., Gula, R., Pirga, B., Tsunoda, H., Eggermann, J., Brzezowska, B., Rouys, S., Radler, S., 2007. Human impact on wolf activity in the Bieszczady Mountains, SE Poland. Annual Zoology Fennecci. 44, 225–231.

-   Trapp, J.R., Beier, P., Mack, C., Parsons, D.R., Paquet, P.C., 2008. Wolf, Canis lupus, den site selection in the Rocky Mountains. Canadian Field-Naturalist 122, 49–56.

-   Treves, A., Martin, K.A., Wydeven, A.P., Wiedenhoeft, J.E., 2011. Forecasting Environmental Hazards and the Application of Risk Maps to Predator Attacks on Livestock. BioScience 61, 451–458.

-   Unger, D.E., Keenlance, P.W., Kohn, B.E., Anderson, E.M., 2009. Factors Influencing Homesite Selection by Gray Wolves in Northwestern Wisconsinand East-Central Minnesota. In: Wydeven. A.P., et al. (Eds.), Recovery of Gray Wolves in the Great Lakes Region of the United States. Springer Science + Business Media, pp. 175–189.