مقایسۀ مقاومت چهار گونه بادام وحشی به تنش شوری ‌در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، عضو هیئت علمی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان چهارمحال و بختیاری

2 استادیار، عضو هیئت علمی دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

3 دانشیار، عضو هیئت علمی مؤسسۀ تحقیقات جنگل‏ها و مراتع کشور

4 استادیار، عضو هیئت علمی دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری.

چکیده

شوری و خشکی از تنش‏های مهم محیطی هستند که آثار نامطلوبی بر زیست‏بوم‏های طبیعی دارند. در میان ژرم پلاسم‏های طبیعی کشور، گونه‏هایی وجود دارند که به شرایط سخت زیست‌محیطی مقاوم‌اند. شناسایی و معرفی این گونه‏ها می‏تواند زمینۀ لازم برای بهره‏گیری از آن‌ها در احیای زیست‏بوم‏های تخریب‌یافته و افزایش غنای گونه‏ای و بهبود تنوع زیستی را فراهم کند. به‌منظور مقایسۀ میزان مقاومت چهار گونه بادام وحشی (Amugdalus Arabica, A. scoparia, A. haussknechtii, A. eleagnifolia ) در مواجهه با تنش شوری و همچنین بررسی اثر عامل رویشگاهی جهت جغرافیایی در میزان مقاومت در برابر این تنش، بذر این گونه‏ها از دو جهت شمالی و جنوبی در رویشگاه کره‏بس استان چهارمحال و بختیاری جمع‌آوری و پس از تیمار سرما‌ـ رطوبت، در گلخانه کشت شد. نهال‏های تولیدی، پس از دو ماه، با استفاده از نمک کلرید‌سدیم (NaCl)‏ و با پنج سطح شوری شامل شاهد، 25، 50، 75 و 100 میلی‏مول، با آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی و در سه تکرار آزمایش شدند. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش شوری از میزان طول و رویش ارتفاعی نهال‏ها کاسته شد به‏طوری‏که نهال‏های شاهد رویش 14 سانتی‏متر طی دورۀ آزمایش داشتند و میزان رویش در نهال‏های تحت تنش 100 میلی‏مول به 9/8 سانتی‏متر کاهش یافت، همچنین بیشترین مقادیر رویشی و زی‏توده مربوط به نهال‏های حاصل از جهت جنوبی بود. افزایش شوری موجب کاهش جذب پتاسیم، مس، روی، آهن و منگنز و افزایش جذب نیتروژن، کلسیم، منیزیم، سدیم و کلر و افزایش غلظت پرولین در اندام ‏هوایی نهال‏ها شد. میزان پرولین در نهال‏های شاهد 39 میلی‏گرم بر گرم بود و با افزایش تنش بر مقدار آن افزوده شد تا در نهال‏های تحت تنش 100 میلی‏مول نمک به 4/118 میلی‏گرم بر گرم رسید. از میان گونه‏های مطالعه‌شده A. arabica بیشترین مقادیر فاکتورهای رویشی، رنگیزه‏های گیاهی و جذب برخی عناصر ضروری را در مواجهه با تنش شوری در اختیار داشت و به نظر می‏رسد که مقاوم‌ترین گونه به تنش شوری باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Tolerance comparison of four wild almonds to salinity in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hassan Jahanbazy 1
  • Seyed Mohammad Hosseini Nasr 2
  • Khosro Sagheb Talebi 3
  • Seyed Mohammad Hojati 4
1 Assistant Professor., Research Center of Agricultural and Natural Resources of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Shahrekord, I. R. Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Universty of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, I. R. Iran
3 Associate Professor, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, I. R. Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Universty of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, I. R. Iran
چکیده [English]

Drought and salinity are the most important environmental stresses that are causing adverse effects on natural ecosystems. There are species among Iranian natural germplasm that are resistant to environmental harsh conditions. Restoring of degraded ecosystems, promoting of biodiversity and increasing of species richness will provide by identifying of these species. Almond species with broad ecological range have this capability. In order to compare the resistance of wild almond species to salinity stress and investigation on effect of aspect (geographical direction) on salinity resistant, seeds of Amugdalus Arabica, A. scoparia, A. haussknechtii and A. eleagnifolia were collected from north and south aspects from Karebas site in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. Seeds were treated by cold-water stratification and then were planted in the nylon bags in green house. After two months, seedlings were experimented by using of sodium chloride with five levels of salinity (control, 25, 50, 75, 100 Mm), by factorial experiment in completely randomized design with three replications. Results showed that the maximum amount of growth and biomass belonged to seedlings from south aspect. Control seedlings were grown 14 cm during the experimental period and the growth rate of seedlings under 100 mmol reduced to 8.9 centimeters. By increasing of salinity, length and height increment of seedlings decreased. Increasing of salinity caused reduce in absorption of copper, zinc, iron, manganese and potassium and increase in uptake of magnesium, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, calcium and proline concentration in the shoots of seedlings. Proline in control seedlings was 39 mg/g, by increasing of stress amount of proline received to 118.4 mg/g in seedlings under salt stress of 100 mmol. Among the studied species, A. arabica had highest levels of growth factors, pigments concentration and uptake of necessary elements in facing of salinity stress, which sounds to be the most resistant species to salinity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • nuterients
  • Prolin
  • sodioum chloride
  • Zagross
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