ارزیابی خطر بوم‏ شناختی عناصر سمّی در خاک سطحی برای برخی از گروه‏ های جانوری (مطالعۀ موردی: استان گلستان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه محیط‏زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع‏طبیعی و علوم زمین، دانشگاه کاشان

2 گروه خاک‏شناسی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود

3 گروه زمین‏ شناسی، دانشکدۀ علوم، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 گروه محیط‏زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع‏ طبیعی و علوم زمین، دانشگاه کاشان

چکیده

روش‏های ارزیابی خطر بوم‏شناختی متعددی طی دهه‏های گذشته در سراسر جهان به‌منظور ارزیابی آثار آلاینده‏ها بر پذیرنده‏های مختلف مانند گونه‏های مختلف حیات ‏وحش توسعه ‏یافته‏اند‌ اما تا کنون چنین روش‏هایی به‌ندرت برای تعیین خطرهای بالقوۀ بوم‏شناختی در ایران استفاده ‏شده‏اند. بنابراین، در این مطالعه یکی از این روش‏ها (Eco-SSLs) به‌منظور تعیین خطر بوم‏شناختی برای گروه‏های مختلف حیات ‏وحش استفاده می‏شود. به همین منظور 216 نمونه خاک سطحی (‌عمق 0‌ـ 30 سانتی‌متر) از سطح استان گلستان در شمال ایران با توجه به نقشه‏های خاک‏شناسی، زمین‏شناسی، کاربری اراضی، و نیز توزیع منابع آلاینده شامل موقعیت معادن، صنایع، شبکۀ جاده‏های اصلی، محل‏های دفن زباله، زمین‏های کشاورزی جمع‏آوری شد و برای تعیین غلظت کل آرسنیک، کادمیوم، مس، منگنز و روی هضم شد. کریجینگ معمولی برای تخمین غلظت فلزات استفاده شد. سپس نقشه‏های غلظت عناصر به‌منظور تهیۀ نقشۀ خطر بوم‏شناختی فلزات سنگین بر‌اساس روش Eco-SSLs سازمان حفاظت از محیط‏ زیست امریکا به‌منظور ارزیابی خطرهای بوم‏شناختی این فلزات برای گیاهان، بی‏مهرگان و مهره‏داران استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که غلظت میانگین آرسنیک، کادمیوم، مس، منگنز و روی در خاک گلستان به‌ترتیب عبارت‏اند از : 1/9، 12/0، 42/24، 31/700 و 08/82 میلی‏گرم بر کیلوگرم است، که بیشتر از غلظت‏های پایه در استان هستند و میانگین غلظت‏ها کمتر از سطوح بالقوه اثرگذار‌ند. در میان عناصر، منگنز و روی خطر بوم‏شناختی بیشتری نسبت به سایر عناصر داشتند. ارزیابی خطر بوم‏شناختی نشان داد که استان گلستان خطر بوم‏شناختی جدی ندارد. اگرچه نقشه‏های خطر مبتنی بر روش Eco-SSLs نشان داد که حیات ‏وحش ممکن است تا حدودی در خطر باشند، کارایی روش Eco-SSLs مورد تردید است و اگرچه این روش استاندارد علمی خوبی دارد، به نظر می‏رسد قبل از استفاده در ایران به اصلاح نیاز دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Ecological risk assessment of toxic elements in the soil for some animal groups (Case Study: Golestan Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rouhollah Mirzaei 1
  • Hadi Ghorbani 2
  • Naser Hafezi Moghaddas 3
  • Neda Ravankhah 4
1 Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth Sciences, University of Kashan, Iran
2 Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
3 Department of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
4 Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth Sciences, University of Kashan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Numerous ecological risk assessment methodologies have been developed over the last twenty years around the world for evaluating effects of pollutant on receptors such as different wildlife species. But so far such methods have only rarely been used to determine potential ecological risks in Iran. Therefore in this study we used one of these methodologies (Eco-SSLs) to determine ecological risk for some different wildlife groups. To this end, considering soil maps, geology, land use, and distribution of pollutant sources, including the location of mines, industry, main roads, hazardous waste sites, agricultural lands, 216 surface Soil samples (0-30 cm) were collected from Golestan province, north of Iran were subjected to a total digestion technique and analyzed for As, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn. ordinary kriging was used to predict soil concentrations. Metal concentrations maps were then used to Map ecological risk of HMs based on the USEPA’s Eco-SSLs to assess their ecological risks posed by these heavy metals for plants, invertebrates and vertebrates groups. The results showed that the average concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn in soil of Golestan were up to 9.10, 0.12, 24.42, 700.31and 82.08 mg/kg, respectively, which are much higher than their natural background values. Results showed that the mean concentrations of these heavy metals were lower than potential effect levels. Among the metals, Mn and Zn showed a higher ecological risk than the others. Ecological risk further indicated that Golestan was not suffering from serious metal contamination based on Eco-SSLs methodology. Generally Maps of risk based on the USEPA’s Eco-SSLs (for plants, invertebrates and vertebrates) showing that wildlife may be partly at risk but that the relevance of Eco-SSL values is questionable and the present study found that, although this methodology was of a high scientific standard, but it seems it would need modification before its using in Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • toxic elements
  • Ecological risk assessment
  • Ecotoxicology
  • Golestan province
 
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