بررسی تغییرات غلظت هیدروکربن‏های نفتی در اعماق مختلف خاک ‏آلوده بعد از فرایند گیاه‏ پالایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری علوم محیط زیست، گروه محیط زیست، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)

2 استاد تمام، دکتری مهندسی عمران، گروه مهندسی محیط زیست، دانشکدۀ مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه صنعتی خواجه نصیرالدین طوسی

3 دانشیار، دکتری آبیاری و زهکشی، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)

4 استاد تمام، دکتری شیمی، گروه محیط زیست، دانشکدۀ محیط زیست و انرژی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران

چکیده

هیدروکربن‏های نفتی از مهم‏ترین آلاینده‏های آلی محیط زیست‏اند که به‌دلیل سمّی‌بودن و سرطان‏زایی، وجود آن‏ها در طبیعت، نگرانی‏های بسیاری را سبب شده است. هدف از پژوهش حاضر کاهش غلظت هیدروکربن‏های نفتی در خاک اطراف پالایشگاه اصفهان، با استفاده از گیاهان سورگوم (Sorghum vulgare) و جو (Hordeum vulgare) و بررسی تغییرات غلظت هیدروکربن‏های نفتی و تعداد باکتری‏های تجزیه‌کنندۀ نفت در اعماق مختلف خاک پس از فرایند گیاه‌پالایی بود. برای این کار از لوله‏های پلیکا به طول 130 و قطر دهانۀ 20سانتی‏متر به‌منزلۀ گلدان استفاده شد. بذر گیاهان جو و سورگوم در عمق 1 تا 2 سانتی‌متری سطح گلدان‏ها کشت شدند و پس از گذشت 13 هفته از کاشت گیاهان، نمونۀ خاک برای تعیین غلظت هیدروکربن‏های نفتی و تعداد باکتری‏های تجزیه‏کنندۀ نفت از اعماق 25، 50، 75 و100 سانتی‌متری تیمارهای مختلف برداشت شد. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشان داد، هر دو گیاه برای کاهش غلظت هیدروکربن‏های نفتی خاک مؤثر‌ند به‌طوری‌که درصد کاهش غلظت هیدروکربن‏های نفتی خاک 23‌ـ 35 درصد بیشتر از تیمار بدون گیاه بود البته این کاهش تا عمق نفوذ ریشه مشاهده شد و برای اعماق بیشتر خاک، تعداد باکتری نفت‏خوار کم و غلظت هیدروکربن‏های نفتی افزایش داشت. بنابراین، باید در مورد خاک‏هایی که عمق آلودگی زیاد دارند، اقدامات مناسب دیگری نظیر زمین‏پالایی، تزریق و تحریک میکروارگانیسم‏های نفت‏خوار انجام پذیرد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons at different depths of soil following phytoremediation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farida Irajy Asiabadi 1
  • Seyed Ahmad Mirbagheri 2
  • Payam Najafi 3
  • Faramarz Moatar 4
1 PhD. in Environment Science, Dept. of Environment, Faculty of Agriculture and natural resource, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University.
2 Prof., PhD in Civil Engineering, Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran.
3 Assoc. Prof., PhD in Irrigation and Drainage, Dept. of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and natural resource, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University.
4 Prof., PhD in Chemistry, Dept. of Environment, Faculty of Environment and Energy, Science and research branch Islamic azad university, Tehran.
چکیده [English]

Petroleum hydrocarbons are among the major organic environmental pollutants whose toxicity and carcinogenicity effects have raised great concerns while the numerous available physical and chemical methods to remove petroleum hydrocarbons are rarely employed due to their extreme costs and harmful side effects, biological methods, including phytoremediation, have attracted wide attention during the recent years. The current study used sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) to decrease petroleum hydrocarbon content of contaminated soil around Isfahan Oil Refinery (Isfahan, Iran). It also assessed the concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and petroleum-degrading bacteria at different depths of soil following phytoremediation.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes (20 cm in diameter and 130 cm long) were employed for phytoremediation. In each pot, hordeum or sorghum seeds were separately sown approximately 1-2 cm below the soil surface. Thirteen weeks after sowing of the plants, soil columns were sampled at 25, 50, 75, and 100 cm depths and concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons and number of oil-degrading bacteria was determined.
Statistical analyses indicated the two plants to reduce the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons to a significantly higher extent (23%-35%) than the control treatment
Obviously, such an effect was only detected in depths where plant roots penetrated (especially 0-50 cm), i.e. the absence of roots in deeper parts of the soil column (50-100 cm) was accompanied by lower number of oil-degrading bacteria and higher concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. Accordingly, future studies are recommended to investigate the efficacy of landfarming and stimulation and injection of oil-degrading microorganisms in eliminating deep soil contamination.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sorghum vulgare
  • Hordeum vulgare
  • Depth
  • petroleum hydrocarbons
  • Refinement

 

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