Investigating the impact of entrepreneurial capabilities on clean production and sustainable competitive advantage: the moderating role of social marketing orientation (Case study: Iran khodro industrial group)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Nonprofit Higher Education Institute of Moghadas Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

2 Department of Business Management, Faculty of Economics and Management, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

3 Department of Business Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.



In today's highly competitive market, entrepreneurial capabilities and cleaner production have become widely used concepts to enhance competitive advantage and increase green performance. Therefore, the current research was conducted with the aim of investigating the impact of entrepreneurial capabilities on clean production and sustainable competitive advantage, with the moderating role of social marketing orientation in Iran Khodro Industrial Group. This research is an applied research in terms of purpose and descriptive survey in terms of structural equations. The statistical population is the employees and managers of Iran Khodro Industrial Group, 150 of whom were selected as the sample by available sampling method. In order to perform data analysis, LISREL software was used. The results showed that in Iran Khodro Industrial Group, entrepreneurship has a positive and significant effect on clean production and sustainable competitive advantage. Clean production also has a positive and significant effect on sustainable competitive advantage. Other findings indicate that social marketing orientation positively moderates the relationship between entrepreneurial capability and clean production and sustainable competitive advantage. Due to the gap of studies in the field of investigating the relationship between these variables in a single study, conducting the present study can provide useful information for managers to create competitive strategies and increase their market share.


Allawi, K.M., Mijbil, S.H., Salloomi, R.K., 2019. The compatibility between lean accounting and cleaner production for achieving competitive advantage. Polish Journal of Management Studies 20(2), 73-82.
Azizi, S., 2013. Mediator, moderator and intervening variables in marketing researchs: conceptualization, differences and statistical procedures and tests. New Marketing Research Journal 3(2), 157-176.‏ (in Persian)
Bjørnbet, M.M., Skaar, C., Fet, A.M., Schulte, K.Ø., 2021. Circular economy in manufacturing companies: A review of case study literature. Journal of Cleaner Production 294(4), 126268.
Chiarelli, A., 2021. The impact of dynamic capabilities and market orientation on firm performance: a case study of higher education consulting firms. Small Business International Review 5(1), 2531-2577.
Chin, J.H., Mansori, S., 2018. Social marketing and public health: A literature review. Journal of Marketing Management and Consumer Behavior 2(2).‏ 48-66.
De Guimaraes, J.C.F., Severo, E.A., de Vasconcelos, C.R.M., 2018. The influence of entrepreneurial, market, knowledge management orientations on cleaner production and the sustainable competitive advantage. Journal of cleaner production 174, 1653-1663.‏
De Massis, A., Kotlar, J., Wright, M., Kellermanns, F.W., 2018. Sector-based entrepreneurial capabilities and the promise of sector studies in entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 42(1), 3-23.
De Oliveira Neto, G.C., Correia, J.M.F., Silva, P.C., de Oliveira Sanches, A.G., Lucato, W.C., 2019. Cleaner Production in the textile industry and its relationship to sustainable development goals. Journal of cleaner production 228, 1514-1525.
Elgarhy, S.D., Abou-Shouk, M., 2023. Effects of entrepreneurial orientation, marketing, and innovation capabilities, on market performance: the mediating effect of sustainable competitive advantage. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 35(6), 1986-2004.
Escamilla-Fajardo, P., Parra-Camacho, D., Núñez-Pomar, J.M., 2021. Entrepreneurship and resilience in Spanish sports clubs: A cluster analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18(10), 5142.
Giannetti, B.F., Agostinho, F., Eras, J.C., Yang, Z., Almeida, C.M.V.B., 2020. Cleaner production for achieving the sustainable development goals. Journal of Cleaner Production 271, 122-127.
Gong, B., Guo, D., Zhang, X., Cheng, J., 2017. An approach for evaluating cleaner production performance in iron and steel enterprises involving competitive relationships. Journal of Cleaner Production 142, 739-748.
Haseeb, M., Hussain, H.I., Kot, S., Androniceanu, A., Jermsittiparsert, K., 2019. Role of social and technological challenges in achieving a sustainable competitive advantage and sustainable business performance. Sustainability 11(14), 3811.‏
Hu, W., Liu, H., Tian, Y., Zhang, X., Mao, Y., 2022. Entrepreneurial Capability, Career Development, and Entrepreneurial Intention: Evidence From China's HR Survey Data. Frontiers in Psychology 13, 870706.‏
Ibrahim, S., Haron, M.S., Saad, N.M., 2017. A proposed operationalization definition for societal marketing orientation. In Conference Paper presented at the 9th AAM International Conference: Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
Kooshan, A.H., Ebrahimi, S.A., 2021. A comparative study of the success factor in localization policies for the automobile industry (case study: Iran and Turkey). Journal of International Business Administration 4(2), 1-20. (in Persian)‏
Lam, J.S.L., Li, K.X., 2019. Green port marketing for sustainable growth and development. Transport Policy 84, 73-81.‏
Mahdi, O.R., Nassar, I.A., Almsafir, M.K., 2019. Knowledge management processes and sustainable competitive advantage: An empirical examination in private universities. Journal of Business Research 94, 320-334.‏
Mohammadi, M., Hajipour, B., 2020. Identifying coopetition model in Iran Automotive industry based on systematic approach: A case study of Iran Khodro Company. Public Management Researches 13(47), 275-306.  (in Persian)
Pangarso, A., Astuti, E.S., Raharjo, K., Afrianty, T.W., 2020. The impact of absorptive capacity and innovation ambidexterity on sustainable competitive advantage: the case of Indonesian higher education. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues 7(3), 2436.‏
Petrovičová, j., 2009. Social marketing orientation of companies in slovakia. Cag University Journal of Social Sciences 6(2), 12-24.
Pratono, A.H., Darmasetiawan, N.K., Yudiarso, A., Jeong, B.G., 2019. Achieving sustainable competitive advantage through green entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation: The role of inter-organizational learning. The Bottom Line 32(1), 2-15.
Sharma, S., Durand, R.M., Gur-Arie, O., 1981. Identification and analysis of moderator variables. Journal of marketing research 18(3), 291-300.‏
Sørensen, I.E., Noonan, C., 2022. Production, policy and power: the screen industry’s response to the environmental crisis. Media, Culture & Society 44(1), 172-184.
Tenner, I., Hörisch, J., 2021. Diversity matters: the influence of gender diversity on the environmental orientation of entrepreneurial ventures. Journal of Business Economics 91(7), 1005-1023.
Vu, H.M., 2020. A review of dynamic capabilities, innovation capabilities, entrepreneurial capabilities and their consequences. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business 7(8), 485-494.‏
Xing, Y., Liu, Y., Boojihawon, D.K., Tarba, S., 2020. Entrepreneurial team and strategic agility: A conceptual framework and research agenda. Human Resource Management Review 30(1), 100696.