Using response surface method (RSM) to develop a soil optimization model for designing a natural wastewater treatment filter (Case study: Shahid Tondgoyian Petrochemical Company)

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Industrial Management, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Management , Faculty of Management and Finance, Khatam University, Tehran, Iran

3 Natural Resources Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran

Abstract

Petrochemical manufacturing processes incorporate toxic and dangerous chemicals, making petrochemical wastewater treatment one of the world's most critical environmental issues today. As a result, this research presents an optimization model of soil characteristics for designing a natural filter for the wastewater treatment of Shahid Tondgoyan Petrochemical Company using the response surface method (RSM). After selecting and sampling soils in Bahmaei city of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad provinces, the physicochemical characteristics of the studied soils were determined, including their acidity (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), percentage of organic matter (OM), and percentage of clay (Clay). Following that, 12 small natural soil filters were designed in the laboratory, and effluent filtration tests were conducted after preparing the effluent from Tondgoyan Petrochemical Company. As response variables, four parameters were determined for the effluent from the filters: acidity (pH), total suspended solids (TSS), iron content (Fe), and manganese content (Mn). We fitted regression models between the four soil parameters (independent variables) and each of the effluent parameters using Design-Expert statistical software (response variables). The PSO algorithm was used to optimize regression models to obtain the optimal values for soil physicochemical parameters to produce the best effluent with the least amount of pollution. The results indicated that parameters such as acidity, electrical conductivity, organic matter, and a high percentage of soil clay would increase the acidity and decrease the total suspended solids, iron, and manganese in the effluent, thereby assisting in the treatment of petrochemical effluent. Additionally, the optimization algorithm determined that an EC of approximately 0.03 dS/cm, an acidity of 7.9, an organic matter percentage of 2.95, and a clay content of 50% are the optimal values for soil parameters whose effluent output parameters included neutral acidity greater than 7, TSS 90, iron 1, and manganese 2.3 mg / l. The findings may aid in the construction of a large-scale soil filter.

Keywords

Abdulla, G., Kareem, M.M., Hashim, K. S., Muradov, M., 2020. Removal of iron from wastewater using a hybrid filter Removal of iron from wastewater using a hybrid filter. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 888(2020), 012035.
Box, G.E.P., Wilson, K.B., 1951. On the Experimental Attainment of Optimum Conditions. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 13(1), 1-45. 
Bergh, F., Engelbrecht, A.P., 2001. Effects of swarm size on cooperative particle swarm optimizers. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation July 2001, 892-899.
Efeovbokhan, V.E., Olurotimi, O.O., Yusuf, E.O., Abatan, O.G., 2019. Production of Clay Filters for Waste Water Treatment Production of Clay Filters for Waste Water Treatment 1378(3): 20-28.
Eslami, H., Khosravi, R., Peirovi, R., Taghavi, M., 2018. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Yazd-Ardakan Plain for Agricultural Purposes Using Geographic Information System (GIS). Journal of Health and Hygiene 8(500429), 575-586. (In Persian).
Gong, C., Ren, X., Han, J., Wu, Y., Gou, Y., Zhang, Z., He, P., 2022. Toxicity reduction of reverse osmosis concentrates from petrochemical wastewater by electrocoagulation and Fered-Fenton treatments. Chemosphere 286(P1), 131582.
Kennedy, J., Eberhart, R., 1995. Particle Swarm Optimization". Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks. IV. pp: 1942-1948.
Kadam, A. M., Oza, G.H., Nemade, P.D., Shankar, H. S., 2008. Pathogen removal from municipal wastewater in Constructed Soil Filter. Ecological Engineering 33(1), 37-44.
Kadam, A., Oza, G., Nemade, P., Dutta, S., Shankar, H., 2008. Municipal wastewater treatment using novel constructed soil filter system. Chemosphere 71(5), 975-981.
Kaynar, U.H., Kaynar, S.Ç., Karali, E.E., Ayvac─▒kli, M., Can, N., 2021. Adsorption of thorium (IV) ions by metal ion doped ZnO nanomaterial prepared with combustion synthesis: Empirical modelling and process optimization by response surface methodology (RSM). Applied Radiation and Isotopes 178, 109955.
Linnér, E., 1970. Microsurgical trabeculectomy “ab externo” in glaucoma. Transactions of the Ophthalmological Societies of the United Kingdom 89, 475-479.
Mao, N., Song, M., Pan, D., Deng, S., 2018. Comparative studies on using RSM and TOPSIS methods to optimize residential air conditioning systems. Energy 144, 98-109.
Nusrati, K., Rajabi, A., Sayadi, M., 2020. The effect of physical and chemical properties of soil on quantitative and qualitative parameters of groundwater in villages of Mallard city, Tehran province 73(1), 169-183.
Naeth, J., di Primio, R., Horsfield, B., Schaefer, R. G., Shannon, P.M., Bailey, W.R., Henriet, J.P., 2005. Hydrocarbon seepage and carbonate mound formation: A basin modelling study from the Porcupine Basin (offshore Ireland). Journal of Petroleum Geology 28(2), 147-166.
Sharma, S., Simsek, H., 2020. Sugar beet industry process wastewater treatment using electrochemical methods and optimization of parameters using response surface methodology. Chemosphere 238, 124669.
Tedoldi, D., Chebbo, G., Pierlot, D., Kovacs, Y., Gromaire, M.C., 2016. Impact of runoff infiltration on contaminant accumulation and transport in the soil/filter media of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems: A literature review. Science of the Total Environment 569–570, 904-926.
Tian, X., Song, Y., Shen, Z., Zhou, Y., Wang, K., Jin, X., Han, Z., Liu, T., 2019. A comprehensive review on toxic petrochemical wastewater pretreatment and advanced treatment. Journal of Cleaner Production 118692.
Toolabi, A., Malakootian, M., Ghaneian, M.T., Esrafili, A., Ehrampoush, M.H., AskarShahi, M., Tabatabaei, M., Khatami, M., 2019. Optimizing the photo catalytic process of removing diazinon pesticide from aqueous solutions and effluent toxicity assessment via a response surface methodology approach. Rendiconti Lincei 30(1), 155-165.