Environmental impact of forest harvesting operations on runoff in skid trails (Case study: Kheyrud forest)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 k

2 j

3 p;


Nowadays, the importance skid trails and in accordance with forest harvesting and silvicultural methods in the forestry sectors in the Hyrcanian forest, northern Iran, the necessity of the accurate and comprehensive assessment of these trails must be postulated. Forest machinery traffic on skid trails also has a large influence on the soil physical properties, so that, these properties cannot be restored after several years in skid trails. The aim of this study was to measure the runoff rate in two slopes classes of 0- 20 and 20-40 percent in the skid trails. For this purpose, the runoff was measured in the plot level in two area on the skid trails and control area in Gorazbon district in the Kheyrud Forest. In this study, due to more reps and get more useful data, the natural rainfall were used. According to the normality of runoff data, the compare mean was used between them by parametric tests. The results showed that skid trails and forest cover change in natural forests were the main cause of the increase in runoff, and also the type of coverage, change of seasons and the interactions between them had a significant effect on the runoff yield. In other words, the amount of rainfall and the change of seasons were the important factors affecting the runoff results. But, the trail slope and their interactions had no significant effect on the runoff.


Akay, A.E., Erdas, E.M., Reis, M., Yuksel, A., 2008. Estimating sediment yield from forest road network by using a sediment prediction model and GIS techniques. Building and Environment 43, 678–695.
Akbarimehr, M., Naghdi. R., 2012. Assessing the relationship of slope and runoff volume on skid trails (Case study: Nav 3 district). Journal of Forest Science 58(8), 357–362
Anisur, R., Hiura, H., 2004. Sediment Movement on Steep Slope of Monoculture Chamaecyparis obtusa (HIONOKI) Plantation. 13th International Soil Conservation Organization Conference. Brisbane. Paper No. 107
Arnaez, J., Larrea, V., Ortigosa, L., 2004. Surface runoff and Soil erosion on unpaved forests road from rainfall simulation tests in northeastern Spain. Catena 57, 1–14
Ayed, M., Adam, A., 2010. The impact of vegetative cover type on runoff and soil erosion under different land uses. Catena 81, 97–103
Bahadur, K.C., 2008. Mapping Soil erosion susceptibility using remote sensing and GIS. A case of the Upper Nam Was Watershed, Nan Province, Thailand. Environmental Geology Do I 10.1007: s00254-008-1348-3
Bennett, H.H., 2001. Soil Conservation, Agrobios. New Delhi, 993 p
Bosch, J.M., Hewlett, J.D., 1982. A review of catchment experiments to determine the effect of vegetation changes on water yield and evapotranspiration. Journal of Hydrology 55, 3–23
Bruijnzeel, L.A, 1988. (De)forestation and dry season flow in the tropics: a closer look. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 1(3), 229–243
Casrmerio, M.A., Molina, J.A., Caravace, M., Massanet, M., Moreno, P., 2004. Influence of scrubs on runoff and sediment loss in soils of Mediterranean climate. Catena 57, 97–107.
Cerda, A., 2007. Soil water erosion on road embankments in eastern Spain. Science of The Total Environment 378, 151–155.
Chang, M., 2003. Forest hydrology: An introduction to water and forests. CRC Press LLC, Florida.1: 373 p
Daghestani, M., 2003. Effects of group selection harvesting on the forest hydrological characteristics. MSc thesis. Faculty of Natural Resources. University of Tehran, 145 p
Dong, B., Zhang, K., Guo, Z., 2012. Runoff and soil erosion from highway construction soil deposits: (A rainfall simulation study). Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 17(1), 8–14
Douglas, I., Greer, T., Bidin, K., Sinun, W., 1993. Impact of roads and compacted ground on post-logging sediment yield in a small drainage basin, Sabah, Malaysia. Hydrology of warm humid regions. In: Proceedings of the Yokohama Symposium. IAHS Publication, Oxford shire, 216, 213–218
Dung, B., Takashi, G., Shusuke, M., Roy, C., Kenichiro, K., Yuichi, O., 2012. Runoff responses to forest thinning at plot and catchment scales in a headwater catchment draining Japanese cypress forest. Journal of Hydrology 444-446, 51–62
Dunne, T., Leopold, L.B., 1978. Water in Environmental Planning. W.H. Freeman and Co., New York. 818 p
Ekwue, E.I., Bharat, C., Samaroo, K., 2009. Effect of soil type, peat and farmyard manure addition, slope and their interactions on wash erosion by overland flow of some Trinidadian soils. Bio systems Engineering 102, 236–243
Etehadi Abari, M., Majnounian, B., Malekian, A., Jourgholami, M., 2017. Effects of forest harvesting on runoff and sediment characteristics in the Hyrcanian forests, northern Iran. European Journal of Forest Research 136, 375–386
Gilmour, D.A., 1971. The effects of logging on streamflow and sedimentation in a North Queensland rainforest catchment. Commonwealth For. Rev. 50, 39–48
Gucinski, H., Furniss, M.J., Ziemer, R.R., Brookes, M., 2001. Forest roads: a synthesis of scientific information. Gen. Techn. Rep.US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service 509, 103 p
Hartanto, H., Prabhu, R., Widayat, A., Asdak, C., 2003. Factors affecting runoff and soil erosion. (plot-level soil loss monitoring for assessing sustainability of forest management). Forest Ecology and Management 180, 361–374
Ide, J., Finer, L., Lauren, A., Piirainen, S., Launiainen, S., 2013. Effects of clear-cutting on annual and seasonal runoff from a boreal forest catchment in eastern Finland. Forest Ecology and Management 304, 482–491
Khanal, S., Prem, B., Parajuli, J., 2011. Evaluating hydrologic effect of forest harvesting at Upper Pearl River Watershid in Mississippi. An AsABE Meeting Presentation, 110895
LU, D.S., 2001. Estimation of forest stand parameters and application in classification and change detection of forest cover types in the Brazilian Amazon basin. PhD dissertation, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN, USA.
Luce, C.H., Black, T.A, 2001. Introduction to special issue on hydrologic and geomorphic effects of forest roads. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26, 111–113
Morgan, R., 2005. A simple approach to soil loss prediction: a revised Morgan–Morgan–Finney model. Catena 44, 305–322
Motha, J.A., Wallbrink, P.J., Hairsine, P.B., Grayson, R.B., 2003. Determining the sources of suspended sediment in a forested catchment in southeastern Australia. Water Resources Research 39, doi: 10.
Myers, N., 1988. Tropical forests: much more than stocks of wood. Journal of Tropical Ecology 4, 209–221
Qiang Deng, Z., Lima Joao, L.M.P., Shin Jung, H., 2008. Sediment transport rate-based model for rainfall-induced soil erosion. Catena 76, 54–62
Ramos-Scharrón, C.E., MacDonald, L.H, 2005. Measurement and prediction of sediment production from unpaved roads, St John, US Virgin Islands. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 30(10), 1283–1304
Rijsdijk, A., Bruijnzeel, L.A.S., Sutoto, C.K., 2007. Runoff and sediment yield from rural roads, trails and settlements in the upper Konto catchment, East java. Indonesia. Geomorphology Journal 87(1-2), 28–37
Ross, S.M., Dykes, A., 1996. Soil conditions, erosion and nutrient loss on steep slopes under mixed dipterocarp forest in Brunei Darussalam. In: Edwards, D.S., Booth, W.E., Choy, S.C. (Eds.), Tropical Rainforest Research—Current Issue. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Rowse, J., Center, C., 1998. Forest Harvesting to Optimize Timber Production and Water Runoff. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 32(4), 277–293
Sensoy, H., Omer, K., 2013. Slope shape effect on runoff and soil erosion under natural rainfall conditions. iForest- Biogeoscience and Forestry 7, 110–114
Stednick, J.D., 1996. Monitoring the effects of timber harvest on annual water yield. Journal of Hydrology 176, 79–95
Suryatmojo, H., Masamitsu, F., Mizuyama, T., 2013. Effects of selective logging methods on runoff characteristics in paired small headwater catchment. Procedia Environmental Science 17, 221–229
Trimble, J., Sartz, R.S., 1957. How far from a stream should a logging road be located? Journal of Forestry 55, 339–341
Zachar, D., 1982. Soil Erosion. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam. 650p
Ziegler, A.D., Sutherland, R.A., Giambelluce, T.W., 2000. Runoff generation and sediment production on unpaved roads, footpaths and agricultural land surfaces in Northern Thailand. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 25, 519–534