Identification of Suitable Climatic Regions for Beekeeping in Isfahan Province with a Combined Approach of Fuzzy Logic and Melissopalynology

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Geography, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 M. Sc. student, Department of Physical Geography, Faculty of Earth Sciences,, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran


Several factors play a role in the suitability of the natural environment for the beekeeping industry through a systematic view. In this paper, first, the possibility of identifying proper regions for beekeeping was identified by fuzzy analysis considering the physical and climatic factors in Isfahan Province. In the second step, honey samples were selected with suitable distribution in the province to evaluate the quality of honey and to distinguish original honey by measuring physical and chemical parameters through melissopalynology and chemical analysis. Having primarily assessed the study case, about 85% of areas of the province were found improper for the beekeeping industry while about 14 percent of the areas were identified as the suitable regions for apiculture and honey production.Based on results, 8.5 and 6.08 percent of the suitable beekeeping areas lie in good and moderate categories, respectively. Pollen analysis showed that the samples basically belong to 86 plant types in four regions of Isfahan province including Khansar, Najafabad, Semirom, and Fereydunshahr counties. On the basis of chemical analysis and melissopalynology outputs, out of 60 honey samples sent to the laboratory, only 39 samples were identified with pollen (original honey) and the rest was detected as adulterated honey without pollen. Chemical analysis of honey showed that high-quality honey samples were obtained from all of the four regions of Isfahan province. Finally, the Semirom region was identified as the most suitable area for investing in the apiculture industry, producing high-quality medical (monofloral) honey.


Ahmad, T.S., Ghulam-Muhammad, A.F., Partap, U.S., 2017. Impact of Apiculture on the Household Income of Rural Poor in Mountains of Chitral District in Pakistan, Journal of Social Sciences (COES&RJ-JSS) 6(3), 518-531.
Akbari azirani, T., Ramezani, E., Alizadeh, K., Behling, H., 2016. Palynological and Physiochemical Monitoring of Iranian Honey, European Pollen Database Meeting and training workshops 1-3 Jun 2016, France.
Amiri, F., Arzani, H., Goyli, E., 2012. Study of diversity of nectar-producing and pollinating plants in beekeeping management of rangeland Case study: Qara Aghach watershed, Journal of Rangeland and Watershed Management Iranian Journal of Natural Resources 65(4), 449-460. (In Persian)
Amiri, F., Shariff, A.R.B.M., 2012. Application of geographic information systems in land-use suitability evaluation for beekeeping: A case study of Vahregan watershed (Iran), African Journal of Agricultural Research 7(1), 89-97.
Anton, H., 1994. Elementary Linear Algebra. John Wiley & Sons, (7th ed.), 170- 171, ISBN 978-0-471-58742-2.
Armaghan, S., 2018. Assessment of Climatic Capacities in the Development of Ecotourism in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Journal of Geographical Sciences 28, 21-39. (In Persian)
Askareh, H., 2007. Climate Change, First Edition, Zanjan University Press. (In Persian)
Beheshtifar, S., Saadi, M., Mohammad, P., Mohammad J., Karimi, M., 2010. Using Fuzzy Logic in GIS Environment to Locate Gas Power Plants, Journal of Civil Engineering and Surveying 44(4), 595-583.
Ebadi, R., 2018. Causes of declining population of beehives (Apis mellifera L.) in Iran in recent years and methods to deal with them, The National Conference on Honey Bee Products: Biology, Health and Economy, 24-25 April 2018, University of Isfahan, Iran.
 Erdtman, G., 1969. Handbook of Palynology. An introduction to the study of Pollen grains and Spores, Hafnar Publishing Company, New York. 486 p.
Fadaei, S., Arzani, H., Azarniyond, H., Nehzati, GH., Kaboli, S.H., Amiri, F., 2011. Rangeland Suitability model for beekeeping by using GIS (Case Study: Taleghan Ranges), Journal of Remote sensing and geographic information system for natural Resources 5(3), 44 -52.
Faizi, M.T., Alijani, V., Jaber al-Nassar, Z., Khodagholi, M., Shirani, K., 2017. Ecological Zones Recognition Project (Isfahan Province Plant Type), Agricultural Research, Training and Extension Organization Country 486, 12-20. (In Persian)
FAO, 1991. A framework for land evaluation, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation, Soiles Bulletion 32. Rome, Italy.158 p.
Gordeev, A.V., Kleschenko, A.D., Chernyakov, B.A., Sirotenko, O.D., 2006. Bioclimatical potential of Russia: theory and practice, Moscow, 512. (In Russian)
Gorgi, M., Piri Sahragard, H., Nouri, S., 2019. Potentiometry of beekeeping land development using hierarchical analysis process Case study: Tamin Rangelands, Mirjaveh County, Geography and Development 55, 256-237. (In Persian)
Hall, O., Arnberg, W., 2002. A method for landscape regionalization based on fuzzy membership signatures, Landscape and Urban Planning 59(4), 227-240, ISSN 0169-2046.
Karam, A., Qanavati, E. and Derakhshan Babaei, F., 2014. Locating suitable areas for the construction of urban artificial wetlands using a combination of two methods Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy logic (Case study: Northwest of Tehran metropolis), Geography and Environmental Sustainability 4(2), 40-59. (In Persian)
Karing, P., Kallis, A., Tooming, H., 1999. Adaptation principles of agriculture to climate change. Climate Research 12, 175-183.
Khansaritoreh, E., Salmaki, Y., Akbari Azirani, T., Henareh, F., Alizade, K., Ramezani, E., Zarre, Sh., Beck, G., Behling, H., 2021, The sources and quality of Iranian honey, Heliyon 7(4), E06651.
Koocheki, A., Nassiri, M., Kamali, G.A. and Shahandeh, H., 2006. Potential impacts of climate change on agro-meteorological indicators in Iran, Arid Land Research and Management 20, 245-259.
Pakzad, Z., Raeini Sajaz, M., and Khodagholi, M., 2013, Evaluation of the effects of climate factors on distribution of the habitats of Astragalus adscendens in Isfahan Province, Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research 20(1). (In Persian).
Persano Oddo L., Piro R., 2004. Main European unifloral honeys: descriptive sheets, Apidologie 35 (Suppl. 1), S38–S81.
Shahrestani, N., 2006. Bee and its breeding, Sepehr Publications, Fourth Edition, Tehran. (In Persian)
Salehizadeh, A. A., Khodagholi, M., Gandomkar, A., 1398. Investigation of temperature conditions in Fars province to determine cities prone to urban beekeeping, Journal of New Attitudes in Human Geography, Volume 12, Number 1, pp. 40-27. (In Persian)
Tabaian, S. M. M., 2020. Interview of the expert in charge of bees of Isfahan Jihad Agricultural Organization with IRNA news site. News, 987(84096198), online access through the following address:  (30/10/2020). (In Persian)
Yaghmaei, L., Soltani, S., Khodagholi, M., 2009. Bioclimatic classification of Isfahan province using multivariate statistical methods. International Journal of Climatology, A Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 29(12), 1850-1861.
 Zolfaghari, H., Masoompour Samakoush, J., Chahvari, S., 2018. Estimation of degree-days of growth in northwestern Iran based on climate change models, Journal of Applied Research in Geographical Sciences 18(49), 240-221. (In Persian)