Life cycle assessment of graphite carbon nitride synthesis with application approach in industries located in the Persian Gulf basin

Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Nano and Bio Science and Technology, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Nano and Bio Science and Technology, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran


The use of photocatalysts to remove contaminants has received more attention in recent years due to its unique properties. Carbon nitride graphite (g-C3N4) is one of the most up-to-date and efficient types of environmentally friendly photocatalysts. It should be noted that the use of novel compounds without considering the evaluation of their life cycle is not consistent with the attitude of sustainable development. In the present study, for the first time, an LCA analysis was performed for the g-C3N4 photocatalyst used to desulfurize industrial effluents in the South Pars region, on the shores of the Persian Gulf. In this case, the ReCiPe method was used to specialize in water consumption, chemical energy demand (CED) for calculating energy consumption, greenhouse gas protocol (GGP) for calculating greenhouse gas emissions, and ecological footprint (EP) method. The results showed that the greatest environmental impact of g-C3N4 synthesis mainly appeared in aquatic ecosystems, in specific marine and freshwater ecotoxicity with a total of 74.06% and by human toxicity (6.15%). The final indicator application showed the destructive environmental effects as follows: resources (63.05%) > human health (34.56%) > ecosystems (39.39%), respectively. Sensitivity analysis also determined the consumption of electricity as the most effective parameter for the occurrence of harmful effects on the environment. Therefore, based on the obtained results, it is stated that the use of renewable energies and their replacement with fossil-based energy sources can play an effective role in reducing the environmental consequences of the g-C3N4 synthesis. The results of this study can be also used as a preliminary strategy to conduct further studies in the field of LCA and environmental impact assessment of novel compounds before their large-scale application.


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