Conservation strategies for the goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) in Khorasan Razavi protecting areas

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology


Goitered gazelle is one of the mammals of Iran that its population has declined as a result of several threats such as habitat destruction. The reduction of gazelle populations has happened around the country including, Khorasan Razavi province, in which gazelle populations significantly reduced and the species has been extinct in some regions. In this study, a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches including SWOT, AHP and QSPM were used to investigate the most important internal (strengths and weaknesses) and external (threats and opportunities) factors and to present the best management strategies to improve the status of the species. Results showed that high biodiversity, presence of key species and people`s respect to gazelles were the most important strengths, and drought and water shortages, and the lack of appropriate management and conservation programs were the most important weaknesses. The most important opportunities were zoning of protected areas and using their potentials, livestock management on rangelands and creating hunting areas for locals and economic profitability. Illegal hunting, illegal grazing and habitat destruction were the major threats. Overall SWOT in these protected areas revealed a mini-mini strategy (WT) with a final value of 0.438. According to the definition of this pattern, conservation strategies should be adopted in which minimize weaknesses and threats. Thus, short and long term plans should be prepared to reduce the threats for this species in Khorasan Razavi Province. Developing management plans in cooperation with relevant agencies and the department of environment to deal with prolonged drought and water shortages in protected areas and providing equipments and facilities for wildlife protection was identified as the best conservation strategy.


Ahmadi, H., 1998. Strategic planning and its applications. Samt Publishing, Tehran.262p. (In Persian).
Ahmadi, M., Kaboli, M., Imani- harsini, I., Khosravi, R. & Almasi, M. 2012. Strategic Management Plan for Wolf (Canis lupus) in Hamedan Province: An Approach to Reducing Human-Wolf Conflicts. Journal of Natural Environment 65: 271-281. (In Persian).
Akbari, H., Habibi, A. & Zaree, R. 2013. Investigation on Population Characteristics, Association Patterns and Decreasing of Gazella Subgutturosa Population in Kalmand– Bahadoran Protected Area in Yazd province. Environmenatl Researches 3: 75-81. (In Persian)
Besmali, M.R., 2015. Investigating Strategic Factors in Preventing Extinction of Persian Deer Using  SWOT Technique. First International Conference on Environmental Engineering, 29 January, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Chynoweth, M., Coban, E., Altin, C. & Sekercioglu, C. 2016. Human–wildlife conflict as a barrier to large carnivore management and conservation in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology 40: 972-983
David, M., David, R. & David, F. 2009. The quantitative strategic planning matrix (QSPM) applied to a retail computer store. The Coastal Business Journal 8: 42-51.
Dehghani, M. & Parvaneh, A., 2009. Impact of drought on the invade of gazelles to nearby villages in Kalmand Protected Area. National Conference on Drought Impacts and Management Strategies, 18 May, Isfahan, Iran. (In Persian).
Erfanian, M. & Alizadeh, A. 2010. Drought Assessment in Khorasan Razavi Province. Journal Of Geography and Regional Development 7: 1-17. (In Persian).
Farashie, A., Kaboli, M. & Rahimian, H. 2012. Management of the native habitat of The Iranian cave barb (Iranocypris typhlops) by AHP-SWOT technique. Journal of Animal Environment 5: 41-51. (In Persian).
Gürel, E. 2017. SWOT Analysis: a theoretical review. Journal of International Social Research 10: 994-1006.
Hosseini, G., Shams -Sfandabab, B. & Alizadeh- Shabani, A. 2017. Habitat suitability evaluation for Persian Gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) in Haftad Qolleh Protected Area, Markazi provincein central Iran. Journal of Natural Environment 69: 965 - 979. (In Persian).
Hussey, D.,  2001. Strategy and planning. Wiley, New York. 296p.
IUCN. 2017. Gazella subgutturosa . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T8976A50187422. Downloaded on 15 March 2020.
Jafari, S., Sakieh, Y., Dejkam, S., Alavian, S., Yaghubzadeh, M. & Danehkar, A. 2013. Developing of management strategies for conservation of Miankaleh wetland by using SWOT analysis. Journal of Wetland Ecobiology 5: 5-18. (In Persian).
Johnson, M. 2007. Measuring habitat quality: a review. The Condor 109: 489-504.
Kajanus, M., kangas, J. & Kurttila, M. 2004. The use of value focused thinking and the A’ WOT hybrid method in tourism management. Journal of Tourism Management 25: 499-506.
Kangas, J., Pesonen, M., Kurttila, M. & Kajanus, M., 2001. A'WOT: Integrating the AHP with SWOT Analysis. 6 th ISAHP 2001 Proceedings, Berne, Switzerland.
Karami, P., Kamangar, M. & Hosseini, M. 2016. Modelling of Habitat Suitability of Persian Gazelle (Gazella Subgutturosa Subgutturosa) In Qaraviz No Hunting Area and Kermanshah Province by Using Artificial Neural Networks. Journal of Animal Research 29: 340-352. (In Persian).
Kazana, V., Kazaklis, A., Stamatiou, C., Koutsona, P., Boutsimea, A. & Fotakis, D. 2015. SWOT analysis for sustainable forest policy and management: a Greek case study. Journal of Information and Decision Science 7: 31-37.
Kurttila, M., Pesonen, M., Kangas, J. & Kajanus, M. 2000. Utilizing the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in SWOT analysis-a hybrid method and its application to a forest-certification case. Journal Forest Policy and Economics 1: 41-52.
Madjnoonian, H., 2014. Protected Areas Criteria & Guidlinges for selection, conservation. Dey Negar, Tehran. 414p. (In Persian).
Mohammadi- Fazel, A.A. & Safaei, M., 2001. The Global Value of Biodiversity; Actions and Investments for the 21st Century. Green ring, Department of Environment, Iran. 192p. (In Persian)
Padash, A., Nabavi, M.B., Dehzad, B., Jouzi, A. & Moradi, N. 2011. Strategic Planning to Develop Environmental Conservation in Marine Protected Areas (Case Study: Mond Protected Area- Bushihr Province). Environmenatl Researches 1: 53-66. (In Persian).
Pahlavani, A. 2004. Captive breeding of Chinkara (Gazella dorcas) In Shirahmad Sabzevar. Journal of Environmental Studies 30: 51-56. (In Persian).
Rahnama, M.A. & Asadi, R. 2016. Strategic analysis of Khorasan Razavi province according to spatial planning. Journal of Geography and Regional Development 14: 115-141. (In Persian).
Razmjooei, D. & Saeidi, N. 2016. Formulating transit development strategy at Anzali Port through SWOT & QSPM methods. Journal of Marine Science and Technology 14: 1-14. (In Persian)
Saaty, T.L. 1977. A scaling method for priorities in hierarchical structures. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 15: 234-281.
Scolozzi, R., Schirpke, U., Marri, E., Damato, D. & Santolini, R. 2014. Ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis of protected areas for conservation strategies. Journal of Environmental Management 146: 543-551.
Soroushnia, S. 2019. Strategic planning for sustainable development of Choghakhor wetland protected area. Geography and Human Relatioships 2: 202-213. (In Persian).
Tavakoli, M. 2014. Ecoutourism in Khorasan Razavi. Siahat-o-Safar 3: 17. (In Persian).