The Relationship of Land Use and Quality of Groundwater Resources of Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari Province

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant professor of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth Science, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

2 Graduate student of Watershed Management, Department of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Shahrekord University

3 Assistant professor of Rangeland and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth Science, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

4 Expert of Water and Waste Water Company of Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari Province


Groundwater is the most important source of potable water in the most of the cities and villages of Iran. Nitrate and phosphate are the greatest current groundwater pollutants that threaten the health of the people in Iran. This research was done with the aim of assessing the effect of land use on the quality of potable water. To this aim, 132 water samples from 132 wells used for drinking purposes in different locations of the province were prepared, and nitrate and phosphate concentrations in samples were measured with a spectrophotometer. The results showed nitrate concentrations in 92.42% of the samples were below the permitted limit, while 7.58% of the samples were higher than standard. Phosphate concentration in 100% of the samples was lower than both the global and Iranian standards. Also, there was significant correlation between nitrate and phosphate concentrations (r = 0.29). According to the obtained results, nitrate concentrations in residential areas were significantly different from those in rangeland, forest and garden land uses (p <0.05). Phosphate concentration in residential areas, agriculture, rangeland and garden land had significant differences with those in forest land use (p <0.05). Now, water quality with regard to nitrate concentration in most parts of the province and phosphate concentration in all parts of province were in compliance with standards, but nitrate concentration was 10 points higher than the permitted level. Therefore, monitoring, purification, wastewater generation and lower consumption of nitrate fertilizer should be considered.


  1. Adeli, M.  2010. Analysis of water resources quality of Gorgan county using with GIS, National conference of geomantic. Cartographic Center, May 2010. in Persian.

    Alighadri, M., Hazrati, S., Sakhaiezadeh, A. 2013. Measurement of nitrate doncentrations in drinking water supply Sources and distribution detwork of Ardabil city. 2(2), 69-75. in Persian

    Amarlooei, A., Nazeri, M., Nourmoradi, H., Sayehmiri, K., Khodarahmi, F. 2014. Investigation on the noncentration of nitrate and nitrite in Ilam ground waters. Scientific Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences 22(4), 33-41. in Persian

    Datta, P. S.; Deb, D. L. and Tyagi, S.K. 1997. Assessment of groundwater contamination from fertilizers in Delhi area based on 18O, NO3- and K+ composition. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 27 (3-4), 249- 262.

    Dolati, S. 2012. Dispersion process of phosphorous in groundwater resources (Case study: rice field of north of Iran). M.Sc. Thesis in Civil engineering-Environment, Khajeh Nasir Toosi University of Technology, Faculty of Civil engineering. in Persian.

    Fathi Hafshejani, E., Beigi Harchegani, H. 2013. Spatial variability and mapping of Nitrate and Phosphate in Shahrekord groundwater over a Period of Five Years. Journal of Water and Soil Science (Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources). 17 (65), 63-75. in Persian

    Hasani, A., Eskandari, M., Sayadi, M. 2015. Investigation of chemical fertilizers effects on groundwater quality of Shemiran villages. Sustainability, Development & Environment 2(4), 1-15. in Persian

    Jeevanandam, M., Kannan, R.; Srinivasalu, S. and Rammohan, V. 2007. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of lower part of the Ponnaiyar River Basin, Cuddalore district, South India. Environmental monitoring and assessment 132 (1-3), 74-263.

    Kawagoshi, Y., Suenaga, Y., Chi, N. L., Hama, T., Ito, H. and Van Duc, L. 2019. Understanding nitrate contamination based on the relationship between changes in groundwater levels and changes in water quality with precipitation fluctuations. Science of The Total Environment 657, 146-153.

    Kihumba, A.M., Longo, J.N. and Vanclooster, M. 2016. Modelling nitrate pollution pressure using a multivariate statistical approach: the case of Kinshasa groundwater body, Democratic Republic of Congo. Hydrogeology journal 24(2), 425-437.

    Lawniczak, A.E., Zbierska, J., Nowak, B., Achtenberg, K., GrzeĊ›kowiak, A. and Kanas, K. 2016. Impact of agriculture and land use on nitrate contaminatio in groundwater and running waters in central-west Poland. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 188(3), 172.

    Lerner, D.N. and Papatolios, K.T., 1993. A simple analytical approach for predicting nitrates concentrations in pumped ground water. Groundwater 31(3), 370-376.

    Matiatos, I., 2016. Nitrate source identification in groundwater of multiple land-use areas by combining isotopes and multivariate statistical analysis: a case study of Asopos basin (Central Greece). Science of the Total Environment 541, 802-814.

    Mosavi, S.A., Samadi Borogeni, H., Noori Emamzadee, S.M. 2013. Challenge’s of providing agricultural water in Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari Province, The First national conference of water and aqriculture, Iranian Association Of Irrigation and Drainage, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch. in Persian

    Mozafarizadeh, M., Sajadi, Z. 2014. 2Survey of groundwater chemical pollution in the Borazjan plain. Iranian South Medical Journal, 17(5), 927-937. in Persian

    Rebolledo, B., Gil, A., Flotats, X. and Sánchez, J.Á. 2016. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to nitrates from agricultural sources using a GIS-compatible logic multicriteria model. Journal of environmental management 171, 70-80.

    Rostami, A.A. 2017. Evaluation of surface temperature in relation to land use/cover using remote sensing data (case study: Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari Province). MSc Thesis in Natural resources, Shahrekord University, Faculty of Natural Resource and Earth Science. in Persian.

    Salman, S.A., Arauzo, M. and Elnazer, A.A. 2019. Groundwater quality and vulnerability assessment in west Luxor Governorate, Egypt. Groundwater for Sustainable Development 8, 271-280.

    Thorburn, P.J. Biggs, J.S. Weier, K.L. and Keating, B.A. 2003. Nitrate in groundwater of intensive agricultural areas in coastal Northeastern Australia. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment 94(1), 49-58.

    1. S. EPA, 1995. Quality criteria for water. EPA 001-86-5/440. USEPA. Washington.

    Wang, S., Zheng, W., Currell, M., Yang, Y., Zhao, H. and Lv, M. 2017. Relationship between land-use and sources and fate of nitrate in groundwater in a typical recharge area of the North China Plain. Science of the Total Environment 609, 607-620.

    WHO, 2004. Hardness in drinking-water: background document for development of WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality. World Health Organization.