The most important ecological factors influencing distribution of endangered species (Anagyris foetida L.) inGilan-e-Gharb region

Document Type : Research Paper


دانشگاه کردستان


In order to determine the most important ecological factors affecting distribution of Anagyris foetida, 12 research areas in the Gilan-e-Gharb of Kermanshah province were selected. Sampling of vegetation of each treatment was performed using random- systematic sampling in 20 × 20 square-meter plot and a plot of 1 × 1 m square was applied for understory sampling. Soil samples were taken at a depth of 50 cm in each plot at the foot of the plant and between the plants. Once in the laboratory, some soil physical and chemical properties such as clay, silt, sand, gypsum, lime, electrical conductivity, pH, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, percentage of stones and pebbles, nitrogen, carbon and potassium were measured. For analysis of the soil and vegetation analysis of variance was applied and, in order to determine the effect of environmental factors on the density and volume of Anagyris foetida covers, the multivariate regression was used. The analysis of variance demonstrated that the factors of slop, pH, magnesium, potasium, nitrogen, clay, sand, canopy, density and size of the habitat have a significant difference at the level of 1% .Regression analysis also showed that 89 percent of the variation in species Anagyris foetida could be justified by nitrogen and slope for the density of the canopy, and N and sand present justified about 50% of the changes in volume of canopy.


Ahmadi, H., Javanshir, K., Ghanbarian,GH., Habibian, S.H., 2002. An investigation on ecological characteristics of plant communities in relation to geomorphological units. Journal of  Natural resources. Of Iran, 55, 81-94 pp. (In Persian).
Alizadeh Gilan, A., 2010.  history and historical geography  of Gilan-e Gharb County. Bagh-e-ney, 399p. (In Persian).
Allahgholi, A., Asri, Y., 2014. Changes in plant communities within the south east salt marshes of Orumieh Lake, I.R. Iran. Plant ecophysiology, 5(15), 74-78 pp. (In Persian).
Anonymus‚1998. Technology to Meintain Biological Diversity. OTA(Office of Technology Assessment ) Commissioned Peper‚ 348p.
Avsar, D.M., 2010. Phenological observations on a bean trefoial (Anagyris foetida L.) poplation in the Kahramanmaras region, Turkey. Scientific Research and Essays, 5(22),3358-3362 pp.
Avsar‚ M. D., 2009. Effect of some pretreatments on seed germination of bean trefoil (Anagyris foetida L.), summer-deciduous shrub. Fresen. Environ. Bull.,18(6), 1014-1017 pp.
Azarnivand, H., Joneidi Jafari, H., jafari, M., 2003. Investigation on habitat Characteristics in Smirnovia iranica and determination of distribution patterns in sand – dunes case study : Band -e- rig Kashan. Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 77, 62-68 pp. (In Persian).
Black, C.A., 1979. Methods of soil analysis. American Society of Agronomy, 2, 771-1572 pp.
David‚ I.F.‚ Annette‚ L.C., Jerome‚ K.V.‚ 2006. Mixed-species plantations of Eucolyptus With nitrogen-fixing trees. Forest Ecology and Management‚ 233, 211-230 pp.
Dehnavi, s., Matinkhah, S.H,.   Nourbakhsh. F., 2014. The role of Hackberry "Celtis caucasica" as nitrogen-fixing trees on understory’s soil properties in reserved area in Ardasteh Dehaghan in Isfahan. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 21 (4), 643-653 pp. (In Persian).
Donate-Correa, J., León-Barrios, M., Hernández, M., Pérez-Galdona, R., del Arco-Aguilar, M., 2007. Different Mesorhizobium species sharing the same symbiotic genes nodulate the shrub legume Anagyris latifolia. Systemiatic  and Applied Microbiology,30(8),615-623 pp.
 Ghaderi, Sh., Ghjorbani, J., Jafarian, Z., Shokri, M., 2010. Identification of halophytic communities and their relationship with soil
Ghahraman A., 1990. Plant Systematic, Cormophytes of Iran. 1, Tehran University Press p 350 p. (In Persian).
Ghani, A. E., Monier,  M., 2003. Soil-vegetation relationships in a coastal desert plain of southern Sinai Egypt. Journal of arid environment, 55, 607-628 pp.
Hosseinzadeh, H., Tahmasebi, M.,  Mohammadpour, M., 2015. Vegetative and site characteristics of Anagyris foetida L. in Zagros forests. Iranian Journal of  Forest and Poplar Research, 23 (3), 393-401 pp. (In Persian).
Jafari, M., Zare chahuki, M.A., Tavili, A., Kohandel, A., 2006. Soil vegetation Relationships in rangelands of Qom Province. Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 73, 110-116 pp. (In Persian).
Janisova, M., 2005. Vegetation environment relationship in dry calcareous grassland. Journal of ecologia, Bratislava, 25-44 pp.
Jazirei, M. H., Ebrahimi Rostaghi, M., 2003. Silviculture in Zagros, University of Tehran, 560 p. (In Persian).
Joneidi Jafari, H.,  Faraji, A., Gholinejad, B., 2016. Investigating the relationships of Daphne mucronata characteristics and environmental factors in Kurdistan Province. Iranian Journal of rangeland,  9(3), 292-303 pp. (In Persian).
Khademolhosseini, Z., M. Shokri., Habibian, S., 2007. Effects of Topographic and climatic Factors on vegetation distribution in Arsanjan shrub lands (case study: Bonab watersheds). Iranian journal of rangeland, 1(3),222-236pp.(In Persian).
Maghsoudi, M., Saeidi Mehrvarz, S., Naqinezhad, A., Ravanbakhsh, M., 2015. The study of factors affecting the vegetation in aquatic and wet habitats of Boujagh National Park, Kiashahr, Guilan Province, Iran. 2 (3), 176-185 pp. (In Persian).
Mesdaghi, M., 2004. Ragland management in Iran. Astan Ghods Razavi, 336 pp. (In Persian).
Moghadam, M.R., 2006. Ecology of terrestrial plants. Tehran University press, 701 p.( In Persian).
Monier, M., Ghani, A.E., Marei, A.H.,  2006. Vegetation associates of the endangered Randonia africana and its soil characteristics in an arid desert ecosystem of western Egypt. Acta Bot. Croat, 65 (1), 83–99 pp.
Nemati, M., Jalilian, N., 2012. Medicinal plants of Kermanshah province, Taxonomy and Biosystematics, 4(11), 69-78 pp. (In Persian).
Ortega-Olivencia, A., Rodrıguez Riano, T., Valtuena, F.J., López, J., Devesa, J.A., 2005. First confirmation of a native bird-pollinated plant in Europe. Oikos, 110, 578-590 pp.
Parsamehr, A. H.,Vahabi, M. R., Khosravani, Z., 2015. Relationship between plant communities and some soil properties using canonical correspondence analysis (Case Study: Ardestan Rangelands). Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research 22(1), 194-203pp. (In Persian).
Pourbabaei, H., Babaeian, M., Bonyad, A.E., Adel,  M.N., 2014. Autecology of Montpellier maple (Acer monspessulanum subsp. cinerascens) in forests of Fars Province. plant studies journal, 27(3), 385-376 pp. (In Persian).
properties in rangelands of Sodkh Deh in Damghan. Arid Biom Scientific and Research Journal,1 (1), 45-56pp. (In Persian).
Sahragard, H., Azarnivand, H., Zare Chahouki, M.A., Arzani, H., Qomi, S., 2009. The study of environmental factors affecting distribution of plant communities of in the middle Taleghan watershed. Journal of Range and Watershed Management, Iranian Journal of Natural Resources,1(64),1-12pp.
Sheikh, A.M., Youssef, M.M.,1981. Halophytic and xerophytes vegetation near Al-Kharj springs. Journal of College of Science, University of Riyadh, 12, 5–21pp.
Shokri, M., Bahmanyar, M. A.,Tatian, M. R., 2003. An ecological investigation of vegetation cover in festival rangelands of Hezar Jarib (Behshahr). Journal of Natural Resources of Iran, 56(1,2), 131-141 pp. (In Persian).
Singh‚ Y.P., Sharma‚ D.K., 2010. Biomass and bio-energy production of ten nultipurpose tree species planted in sodic of indo-gangetic plains. journal of forestry Reserch‚ 21(1), 19-240 pp.
Tahmasebi, p., 2009.Analisis of rangeland ecosystem. Pelk publish, 193 p. (In Persian).
Valipour‚ j., Vahedi‚ H. A., Zamani‚ A. A., 2015. Morphology and Biology of Apopestes Spectrum Esper‚ 1787(Lep: Noctuidae ) on Stinking Bean Trefoil‚ Anagyris Foetida L. (Leguminisae ) in Kermanshah Province. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 5(7),149-156 pp.
Valipour‚ j., Vahedi‚ H. A., Zamani‚ A. A., 2015. Preliminary morphological study of developmental stages of Cydia johanssoni Aarvik & Karsholt (Lep: Tortricidae ) on stinking bean trefoil‚ Anagyris Foetida L. (Leguminisae ) in Iran. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 5(7),299-304 pp.
Valtuna‚ F. J., Olivencia‚ A. O., Rodriguez-Riano‚T., 2008. Germination and Seed bank Biology in some Iberian Populations of Anagyris Foetida. (Leguminosae ).Plant system evol, 275, 231-243 pp.
Virtanen‚ R., Oksanen, J., Razzhivin, V.Y., 2006. Broad scale vegetation environment relationships in Eurasian high latitude areas. Journal of vegetation science, 519-528 pp.
Wang‚G., 1999. Use of under story vegetation in classifying soil moisture and nutrient regims. Forest Ecology and Management‚129‚ 93-100 pp.
Yaltirik, F., 1972. A summer-deciduous woody plant in Turkey: bean trefoil (Anagyris foetida L.) and its importance in forestry practice. Istanbul University, Faculty of Forest, Series A, 22(1), 295-301 pp.
Zolfaghari, F., Pahlevanravi, A., Fakhireh, A. , Jabari, M., 2010. Investigation on relationship between environmental factors and distribution of vegetation in Agh Toghe basin. Iranian journal of Range and Desert Reseach, 17(3), 431-444 pp. (In Persian).
Zolfeghari,F., Zahedi Amiri, GH.,  Mozaffarian, V., and Naghdi, F., 2014. Investigation on most effective environmental factors influencing Juniperus communis establishment (Case Study: Arasbaran Forest, Mardanaghomchay Water catchment area). Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research , 21 (3), 495-505 pp. (In Persian).