Determine of the effective soil quality indexes associated with land use

Document Type : Research Paper


Faculty of Natural Resources


The study of soil quality is important to identify the different management effects on natural resources and agricultural farmland. In this research soil quality index was evaluated in two depth of six land use of Shahryar region through physical and chemical attributes and multi variate data analysis. For this purpose six different land uses/management were selected including rangelands (wild, exclosure and, grazing) and agriculture (Pistachio garden, alfalfa and wheat cultivation). A systematic-random strategy was carried at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depth by and soil properties were measured in the laboratory (98 samples). The soil attributes include: texture, bulk density, water holding capacity, permanent wilting point, field capacity, electrical conductivity, pH, organic carbon, total N, lime, P, K, Na, K and SAR. Statistical analysis shows that, soil properties were grouped into five significant factors for the 0-15 cm depth as: 1-soil salinity, 2- soil nutrients, 3-soil texture, 4- soil phosphor and 5-soil humidity. Factor 1 was known as the most dominant and potassium element (K) contributed the largest factor loading. In 15-30 cm depth, four significant factors were identified (1) salinity; 2) humidity; 3) texture and 4) phosphor). While, in15-30 cm depth, factor 1 was distinguished as the most dominant and SAR and Ec known as the most effective variables for soil attribute. Generally, results indicated that soil salinity factor was the most important factor for soil quality assessment.


Adugna A., Abegaz, A., 2016. Effect of Land use changes on the dynamics of selected soil properties in northeast Wellega
Andrews, S.S., Mitchell, J.P., Mancinelli, R., Karlen, D.L., Hartz, T.K., Horwath, W.R., Pettygrove, G.S., Scow, K.M., Munk, D.S., 2002. On-Farme Assessment of Soil Quality in California’s Central Valley. Agronomy Journal 94, 12-23.
Bo-Jie, F., Shi-Liang, L., Li-Ding, Ch., Yi-He, L., Jun, Q., 2004. Soil quality regime in relation to land cover and slope position across a highly modified slope landscape. Ecological Research 19, 111-118.
Brejda, J.J., Moorman, T.B., Karlen, D.L., and Dao, T.H., 2000a. Identification if regional soil quality factors and indicators: I.Central and southern high plains. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64, 2115-2124.
Brejda, J.J., Moorman, T.B., Smith, J.L., Karlen, D.L., Allan, D.L., Dao, T.H., 2000b, II Northern Mississippi Loess Hills an Palouse Prairie. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64, 2125-2135.
Department of Natural Resources and Watershed province Tehran, Department of Natural Resources and Watershed City Shahreyar. 2007. plan Amirabad Kolahchi Range management,17-34.
Doran, J.w., Parkin, T.B., 1994. Defining and assessing soil quality. Proceedings of a symposium on defining soil quality for sustainable environment, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, PP.3-21.
Doran, J.w., Parkin, T.B., 1996. Quantitative indicators of soil quality: a minimum data set. In: Doran, J.W., Jones, A.J., (Eds.), Methods for Assessing Soil Quality. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
 Hajabbasi, M.A, Jalalian, A., Khajedin , J., Karimzadeh, H.R., 2001. Depasturation Effects on Physical Characteristics, Fertility, and Tilth Index of Soil: A Case Study of Boroojen. Journal of Science and Technology of Agricultural and Natural Resources 6(1) 149-161.
Hebb, C. et al., 2017. Soil physical quality varies among contrasting land uses in Northern Prairie regions. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 240, 14-23.
Karlen, D.L., Hurley, E.G., Andrews, S.S., 2006. Crop Rotation Effects on Soil Quality at Three Northern Corn/Soybean Belt Locations, Agronomy Journal 98, 484-495.
Karlen, D.L., Mausbach, M.J., Doran, J.W., Cline, R.G., Harris, R.F., Schuman, G.E., 1997. Soil quality: A Concept, definition, and framework for evaluation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61, 4-10.
Khademi, H., Mohammadi, J., Nael, M., 2006. Comparison of Soil quality Index under different land management of Boroonjen , Chaharmahal-e-Bakhtiari. Scientific Journal of Agriculture 29 (3) 111-124.
Lal, R., 1998. Soil quality and agricultural sustainability. In: Lal, R. (Eds.) Soil Quality and Agricultural Sustainability. Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea, Michigan, pp. 3-12.
Leite Chaves, H.M., Concha Lozada, C.M., Gaspar, R.O., 2017. Soil quality index of an Oxisol under different land uses in the Brazilian savannah. Geoderma Regional, 10, 183-190.
Masto, R.E., Chhonkar, P.K., Purakayastha, A.K., Patra, A.K.  Singh, D., 2008. Soil quality indices for evaluation of long term land use and management practices in semi- arid sub- tropical India, Land Degradation & Development 19, 516-529.
 Mohammadi, J., Khademi, H., Nael, M., 2005. Study the Variability of Soil Quality in Selected Ecosystems of Central Zagros. Journal of Science and Technology of Agricultural and Natural Resources 9(3) 105-120
Monokrousos, N., Papatheodorou, E.M., Diamantopoulos, J.D., 2006, Soil quality variables in organically and conventionally cultivated field sites. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38, 1282-1289.
Navidi, M.N., Sarmadian, F., Mahmoodi, Sh., 2009. Studying the effects of land use change on soil physical and chemical quality indicators of surface horizons in rangelands of eastern Qazvin province. Journal of Range and Watershed Management. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources 62(2) 299-310.
Nelson, D.W, Sommers, L.E., 1982. Total carbon,organic carbon,and organic matter. In:Page,A.L.(Eds.), Methods of soil Analysis, American Society if Agronomy,vol. 2, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, PP. 539-579.
Nosrati, K., 2010. Effect of soil erosion on some phisico-chemical and biological attributes of soil. PhD thesis. Arid and Mountainous Reclamation Department. University of Tehran. Tehran, Iran, 165p.
Nosrati, K., 2013. Assessing soil quality indicator under different land use and soil erosion using multivariate statistical techniques. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 185, 2895-2907.
Nosrati, K., Majdi, M., 2017.  Soil quality assessment in western part of Tehran using minimum data set method. JWSS-Isfahan University of Technology. In press.
Pankhurst, C.E., Doube, B.M., Gupta,V.R., 1997. Biological indicators of soil health.CAB International, Walingford, UK.
Sayyad E., Hosseini, S.M., Akbarinia, M.., Gholami, SH., 2007. Comparision of soil properties in pure Paplar plantation and mixed with Alnus Subcordata. Junrnal of Environmental Studies, 46: 6976.
Shukla,M.K, Lal, R., Ebinger, M., 2006. Determining Soil quality indicators by factor analysis, Soil & Tillage Research 87, 194-204.
Vinhal-Freitas, I.C., Corrêa, G.F., Wendling, B., Bobuńĺská, L., Ferreira, A.S., 2017. Soil textural class plays a major role in evaluating the effects of land use on soil quality indicators. Ecological Indicators, 74, 182-190.
Yousofi fard, M., Khademi, H., Jalaliyan, A., 2006. Decline in Soil Quality as a Result of Land Use Change in Cheshmeh Ali Region, Chaharmahal-e- Bakhtiari. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources 14(1) 299-310 (Spatial Issue)
Yu, P., Liu, S., Zhang, L., Li, Q., Zhou, D., 2018. Selecting the minimum data set and quantitative soil quality indexing of alkaline soils under different land uses in northeastern China. Science of The Total Environment, 616–617, 564-571.
Zhang, P., Lianqing, Li., 2006. Soil quality changes in land degradation as indicated by Soil Chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties in a karst area of southwest Guizhou, China. Environmental Geology 51, 609-619.
Zhou, SHI., Jie-liang, Chen., You-wei, ZHU., 2007. Assessment and mapping of  environmental quality in agricultural soils of Zhejiang Province, China, Journal Environmental Sciences 19(2007)5C54.