Monthly and quarterly review of carbon emission at different intensities of water erosion (Case study: Ghara aghaj basin- Isfahan province)

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

q

Abstract

This study evaluates monthly and seasonal changes in carbon dioxide emission in five classes of soil erosion in Ghara aghaj basin in Isfahan province. Amounts of water erosion were calculated in working units, using EPM model. Afterward, carbon emission were measured on a monthly basis, for a period of one year using alkali traps in five classes of soil erosion including very low, low, moderate, high and very high. Data on emission levels and erosion classes were analyzed as a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with four replications. The highest rate of emission occurred in July (3.7 gC/m2/day) in very high eroded lands and the lowest in February (0.022 gC/m2/day) in very low erosion rate. Moreover, the greatest amount of carbon emission happened in summer and lowest in winter. Generally, CO2 emission increased by increasing erosion intensity, so controlling erosion is recommended to reduce Carbon losses via detachment or emission.

Keywords

Ahmadi, H., 2007, Applied Geomorphology, Vol. I, Water Erosion, University of Tehran Press, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)
Albergel, J., Mansouri, T., Zante, P., Ben Mamou, A., Abdeljaoued, S., 2006. Organic carbon in the sediments of hill dams in a semiarid Mediterranean area. In: Roose, E.J., Lal, R., Feller, C., Barthes, B., Stewart, B.A. (Eds.), Soil Erosion and Carbon Dynamics. Advances in Soil Science. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL. Vol. 58, S3–S21.
Asefaw Berhe, A., Harte, J., Harden, J.W., Torn, M.S., 2007. The Significance of the Erosion-induced Terrestrial Carbon Sink, BioScience; Vol. 57 No. 4; 337-346.
Boix-Fayos, C., De Vente, J., Albaladejo, J., Martinez-Mena, M., 2009. Soil carbon erosion and stock as affected by land use changes at the catchment scale in Mediterranean ecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 133: 75-85.
Carter, M.R., Gregorich, E.G., 2007. Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. Second Edition. Canadian Society of Soil Science. Evans, M., Lindsay. J., 2010.The impact of gully erosion on carbon sequestration in blanket peatlands. Climate change and the British Uplands, 24, 2-11.
Lal, R., 2003 .Soil erosion and the global carbon budget. Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 437–450. Lal, R., 2005. Soil erosion and carbon dynamics. Soil & Tillage Research 81, 137–142.
Lal, R., Mokma, D., Lowery, B., 1999. Relation between Soil Quality and Erosion. In: Lal, R. (ed.), Soil Quality and Soil Erosion. CRC press. pp: 237-255.
Leifeld, J., Ammann, C., Neftel, A., Fuhrer, J., 2011. A comparison of repeated soil inventory and carbon flux budget to detect soil carbon stock changes after conversion from cropland to grasslands. Global Change Biology, Volume 17, Issue 11, pages 3366–3375.
Lujan, D.L., 2003. Soil Physical Properties Affecting Soil Erosion in Tropical Soils. Facultad de Agronomia, Instituto de Edafologia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay, Venezuela, 233-243.
Martinez-Mena., M.J., Lopez, M., Almagro, C., Boix-Fayos, J., Albala, D., 2008. Effect of water erosion and cultivation on the soil carbon stock in a semiarid area of South-East Spain. Soil & Tillage Research 99: 119–129.
Nosrati, K., 2011. The effect of land use and soil erosion on soil organic carbon and nitrogen stock. Research on environmental erosions, Vol. 3: 128-140. (In Persian)
Owens, L.B., Malone, R.W., Hothen, D.L., Starr, G.C., Lal, R., 2002. Sediment carbon concentration and transport from small watersheds under various conservation tillage practices. Soil Till. Res. 67, 65–73.
Pawson, R.R., Rothwell J.J., Daniels, S., Lord, D.R., Evans, M.G.E., Allott, T.E.H., 2007. Fluvial organic carbon flux from an eroding peatland catchment, southern Pennines, UK. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 4, 719–745.
Ran, L., Lu, X., Xin, Z., 2013. Erosion-induced massive organic carbon burial and carbon emission in the Yellow River basin, China, Biogeosciences Discuss., 10, 13491–13534.
Sadeghipour, A., 2012. The study of carbon sequestration and its distribution in different land uses (Case study: Shahriar). PhD thesis, University of Tehran. (In Persian)
Sadeghipour, A., Kamali , N., Joneidi, H., 2013. Study the effect of rangeland mechanical restoration activities on seasonal and monthly carbon emission (Case study: Sorkhe, Semnan province). J. of Rangeland, vol. 3: 222-229. (In Persian)
Shukla, M.K., Lal, R. 2005. Erosional effects on soil organic carbon stock in an on-farm study on Alfisols in west central Ohio. Soil and Tillage Research, 81: 173-181.
Smith, S.V., Bullock, S.H., Hinojosa-Corona, A., Franco-Vizca─▒´no, E., Escoto-Rodr─▒´ guez, M., Kretzschmar, T.G., FArfa´ n, L.M., Salazar-Cesen˜ a, J.M., 2007. Soil erosion and significance for carbon fluxes in a mountainous Mediterranean-climate watershed. Ecol. Appl. 17, 1379–1387.
Smith, S.V., Sleezer, R.O., Renwick, W.H. and Buddemeier, R.W. 2005. Fates of eroded soil organic carbon: Mississippi basin case study. Ecological Applications, 15: 1929-1940.
Van Oost, K., Quine, T.A., Govers, G., De Gryze, S., Six, J., Harden, J.W., Ritchie, J.C., McCarty, G.W., Heckrath, G., Kosmas, C., Giraldez, J.V., Marques Da Silva, J.R., Merckx, R., 2007. The impact of agricultural soil erosion on the global carbon cycle. Science, 318: 626-629.
Wang, Z., Govers, G., Steegen, A., Clymans, W., Van den Putte, A., Langhans, C., Merckx, R., Van Oost, K., 2010. Catchment-scale carbon redistribution and delivery by water erosion in an intensively cultivated area. Geomorphology, 124: 65-74.
Yoo, K., Amundson, R., Heimsath, A.M., Dietrich, W.E., 2010. Erosion of upland hillslope soil organic carbon: Coupling field measurements with a sediment transport model. Global Biogeochemical cycles, VOL. 19, GB3003.