The ecological study of Striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) denning regions in Haftadgholeh protected area using Maximum Entropy method.

Document Type : Research Paper


1 university of guilan

2 university of Guilan

3 university of malayer


Dens as a useful shelter, has an important roles in social behavior development. However, movement between dens has a big cost for animals especial carnivores but this cost with recognizing territories Will be compensated. The hyenas use the dens for different objects such as shelter during the days, breeding and cubs rearing and also for resting. The Striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) denning regions ecological status has been investigated in Haftadgholeh protected area using MaxEnt method. For this purpose, we used 30 dens localities and 11 Effective variable. The model has been run ten replicates, and the mean map has been selected as prediction map. The validity of model performed by ROC statistical procedure. Based on obtained results, the prediction model of denning regions of species has been successful (AUC=0.76) and on all of threshold limits it is significantly different from random model (P-value<0.001). Also, based on the sensitivity analysis results, the most effective variables on denning of this species was landuse (range lands), altitude, slope and geomorphological types of region. The suitable den in this region defined with vegetation cover types constitute of Stipa barbata, Astragalus spp., Artemisia aucheri in limestone regions with shallow sandy soil, and in east and south-west aspects with 22 percent of slope. Our result showed that due to role of den on survival of animals, identifying factor affecting on den site contribute to better understand of ecological niches


Ahmadi, M., Kaboli, M., Alizadehshaebani, A., Ashrafi, S., and sohrab., 2014. Utility model Implantation and identify the minimum needs (Canis lupus) habitat selection nest locations in hamedan province using partitioned Mahalanobis. Journal of the natural environment, Iranian Journal of Natural Resources. 67(4), pp.367-379. (In persian).
Akay, A.E., Inac, S. and Yildirim, I.C., 2011. Monitoring the local distribution of striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena L.) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey (Hatay) by using GIS and remote sensing technologies. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 181(1-4), pp.445-455.
Alam, M.S., Khan, J.A., Kushwaha, S.P., Agrawal, R., Pathak, B.J. and Kumar, S., 2014. Assessment of suitable habitat of near threatened Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena Linnaeus, 1758) using remote sensing and geographic information system. Asian Journal of Geoinformatics, 14(2).
Anonymous., 1936. the wild animals of the indian empire and the problem of their preservation. part iv. j Bombay Nat. Hist. soc.Report number. 37. 216-219.
Baldwin, R.A. and Bender, L.C., 2008. Den‐Site Characteristics of Black Bears in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 72(8), pp.1717-1724.
Ciarniello, L.M., Boyce, M.S., Heard, D.C. and Seip, D.R., 2005. Denning behavior and den site selection of grizzly bears along the Parsnip River, British Columbia, Canada. Ursus, 16(1), pp.47-58.
Devra G. Kleiman, Valerius Geist, Melissa C. McDade (Eds), Joseph E. Trumpey (Illustrator), Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia: Mammals(III). Gale Cengage; 2 edition (October 2002) pp599.
EshghiMalayeri, B., 1999. Personal Haftadgholleh protected area (In persian).
Haroldson, M.A., Ternent, M.A., Gunther, K.A. and Schwartz, C.C., 2002. Grizzly bear denning chronology and movements in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Ursus, pp.29-37.
Hatt, R.T., 1959. The mammals of Iraq. Museum of zoology, University. Of Michigan, pp.105.
Heptner, V.G. and Sludskii, A.A., 1992. Mammals of the Soviet Union, Volume 2 Part 2 Carnivora (Hyenas and Cats), pp.777.
Heptner, V.G., Nasimovic, A.A. and Bannikov, A.G., 1966. Wisent, Bison bonasus Linnaeus, 1758.[In: Die Säugetiere der Sowjetunion. Band I. Paarhufer und Umpaarhufer. VG Heptner and NP Naumov, eds]. VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena. Report number: pp.488-522.
Ilani, G., 1975. Hyenas in Israel. Israel - Land and Nature. Report number. 16:10-18.
John, O.B.C.S., Lovett, B., Euan-Smith, C.B. and Blanford, W.T., 1876. Eastern Persia: An Account of the Journeys of the Persian Boundary Commission, 1870-71-72 (Vol. 1). Macmillan and Company. Report number.
Karami, M., 2006. Iranian habitat assessment striped hyaena (Hyaena hyaena) National Park Khojier. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3(11), pp.77-78. (In persian).
Khorozian, I., Malkhsayn, A. and Murtskhvaladze, M., 2010. The striped hyaenaHyaenahyaena (Hyaenidae, Carnivora) rediscovered in Armenia. Folia Zoologica, 60(3), pp.253-262.
Kruuk, H., 1976. Feeding and social behaviour of the striped hyaena (Hyaena vulgarisDesmarest). African Journal of Ecology, 14(2), pp.91-111.
Laurenson, M.K., 1993. Early maternal behavior of wild cheetahs: implications for captive husbandry. Zoo Biology, 12(1), pp.31-43.
Lay, D.M., 1967. A Study of the Mammals of Iran: Resulting from the Street Expedition of 1962-63 (Vol. 54). Field Museum of Natural History. Report number.
Leakey, L.N., Milledge, S.A.H., Leakey, S.M., Edung, J., Haynes, P., Kiptoo, D.K. and McGeorge, A., 1999. Diet of striped hyaena in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology, 37(3), pp.314-326.
Libal, N.S., Belant, J.L., Leopold, B.D., Wang, G. and Owen, P.A., 2011. Despotism and risk of infanticide influence grizzly bear den-site selection. PloS one, 6(9), p.e24133.
Lydekker, R., 1907. The Game Animals of India, Burma, Malaya, and Tibet: Being a New and Revised Edition of 'The Great and Small Game of India, Burma, and Tibet,'. R. Ward, limited. Report number:pp395.
Magoun, A.J. and Copeland, J.P., 1998. Characteristics of wolverine reproductive den sites. The Journal of wildlife management, pp.1313-1320.
Mashhadi ahmadi. A.A, Shams esfandabad. B, Ghashtasbmeygony. H, 2014, Modeling (O.o.arkali&O.o.vigneii) crossing the Alborz uses the lowest-cost path analysis in Tehran province. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, 3. pp.18. (In persian).
Mills, M.G.L. and Hofer, H., 1998. Hyaenas: status survey and action plan. IUCN/SSC Hyaena Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland & Cambridge, pp.39-79.
MOUSAVI, M., 2010. Cause of mortality in large mammals inside Iran network of reserves (In Persian).
Olivier, F. and Wotherspoon, S.J., 2006. Modelling habitat selection using presence-only data: case study of a colonial hollow nesting bird, the snow petrel. Ecological modelling, 195(3), pp.187-204.
P Anderson, R., Dudík, M., Ferrier, S., Guisan, A., J Hijmans, R., Huettmann, F., R Leathwick, J., Lehmann, A., Li, J., G Lohmann, L. and A Loiselle, B., 2006. Novel methods improve prediction of species’ distributions from occurrence data. Ecography, 29(2), pp.129-151.
Phillips, S.J., Anderson, R.P. and Schapire, R.E., 2006. Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological modelling, 190(3), pp.231-259.
Prater, S.H. and Barruel, P., 1971. The book of Indian animals (Vol. 2). Bombay, India: Bombay Natural History Society. Report number.
Qarqaz, M.A., Abu Baker, M.A. and Amr, Z.S., 2004. Status and ecology of the Striped Hyaena, Hyaena hyaena, in Jordan. Zoology in the Middle East, 33(1), pp.87-92.
Rieger, I., 1979a. Breeding the Striped hyaena. International Zoo Yearbook, 19(1), pp.193-198. 33-Rieger, I., 1979b. A Review of the Biology of Striped Hyaenas, Hyaena Hyaena (Linné, 1758).
Roberts, T.J., 1977. The mammals of Pakistan. London: E. Benn.
Singh, P., 2008. Population density and feeding ecology of the striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) in relation to land use patterns in an arid region of Rajasthan (Doctoral dissertation, National Centre for Biological Sciences).
Singh, P., Gopalaswamy, A.M. and Karanth, K.U., 2010. Factors influencing densities of striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena) in arid regions of India. Journal of Mammalogy, 91(5), pp.1152-1159.
Skinner, J.D., Davis, S. and Ilani, G., 1980. Bone collecting by striped hyaenas, Hyaena hyaena, in Israel.
Soleimani, S.,2013. Landscape areas of environmental management in Central Province. Publications mehrkatibe-Arak(Iran) (In persian).
Townsend Peterson, A., Papeş, M. and Eaton, M., 2007. Transferability and model evaluation in ecological niche modeling: a comparison of GARP and Maxent. Ecography, 30(4), pp.550-560.
Wagner, A.P., 2006. Behavioral ecology of the striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena). PhD thesis. Biological Sciences. Montana State University Bozeman, Montana. pp.179.