Species-abundance models as an indicator of disturbance in west oak woodland (Quercus brantii Lind.) of Iran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Natural Resources, Markazi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Training Center, AREEO, Postal Code: 3818893811, Arak, Iran, Corresponding author, E-mail: hmirdavoodi@yahoo.com

2 Professor/ Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran

3 Associate Professor/ Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran


Changing environmental conditions, reactions of biotic factors and invasion of invasive species due to anthropogenic or natural disturbances, will change composition and diversity of plant communities over time. Therefore, the measurement of species diversity can be useful in the analysis of disturbance and ecosystem management. Effects of disturbance regimes including "grazing", "fire" and "no disturbance" in Daalaab Park were studied on oak communities. Information of vegetation, soil and other environmental variables were collected from 77 sample plots (256 m2) using the random sampling method in various disturbances classes. Species-abundance models were applied to assess diversity. Results of canonical correspondence analysis showed that "Grazing" and "fire" with the soil and topographic factors were identified as the most influential factors on plant composition. The results of species distribution models were showed that grazing disturbance class was fitted with the geometric model. A trend of this model to the Lognormal was observed. This result supported this assumption that communities affected by disturbance, have a change from a state with less destruction to the status with high destruction that most severely affected by natural and human disturbances. Matching of fire disturbance class with log series, was represented the immaturity of these communities that due to the onset of secondary succession in this class, it is logical and consistent this theory. If that, without disturbance class was matched with the log normal model. This model reflects the mature communities with high richness and diversity.


Aliehiaei, M., Behbahanizadeh, A.A., 1992. Chemical soil analysis procedure. Soil and water research institute. Technical report number: ­893,129 p. [Persian].
Archibold, O.W., 1995. Ecology of world vegetation. Chapman and Hall Inc, London: 5.9 p.
Arekhi, S., Heydari, M., Pourbabaei, H., 2010. Vegetation-environmental relationships and ecological species groups of the Ilam oak forest landscape, Iran. Caspian J.Env. Sci. 8(2): 115-125.
Asri, Y., 2005. Ecology of vegetation. Payam Noor University Publisher, Iran, 209 p. [Persian].
Asri, Y., Mehrnia, M. 2002. A phytosociological study of central part of sefid- kuh protected area. Iranian journal of Natural research, 54(4): 423- 443.
Assadi, M., Maassoumi, A.A., Khatamsaz, M., Mozaffarian, V., 1963- 2015. Flora of Iran, nos. 1-85. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands Press. [Persian].  
Atri, M., Jafari, E. 2001. Investigation of ecology and phytososyology in northeastern Yasouj. The final report of the research project, Forest and Rangeland Research Institute, 61 p.
 Basiri, R., Karami, P., 2006. The use of diversity indices to assess the plant diversity in Marivan, Chenareh forests. Journal of AgriculturalSciences andNatural Resources13(5), 163-172. [Persian].
 Bauahim, S. L., Rhazi, B. Amami, N., M. Sahib, A. Rhazi, Waterkeyn, A. Zouahri, F. Mesleard, S.D. Muller, and P. Grillas. 2010. Impact of grazing on the species richness of plant communities in Mediterranean temporary pools (western Morocco). Comptes Rendus Biologies 333, 670- 679.
Biaou, S. H., Sterck, Ir. F. J., Holmgren, M., 2009. Tree recruitment in West African dry woodlands. The interactive effects of climate, soil, fire and grazing. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. 182 p.
Davis, P. H. (ed.) 1965- 1985. Flora of Turkey, Vols. 1-9. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
Davis, M.A., Grime, J. P., Thompson, k., 2000. Fluctuating resources in plant communities: A general theory of invisibility. J. Ecol. 88:528-534.
Dufrene, M., and P. Legendre. 1997. Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. EcologicalMonographs 67, 345- 366.
 Ejtehadi, A., Akkafi, H., Ghorshi Alhoseini, J., 2002. Comparison of numerical indicators of diversity at two sites with different grazing management. Iranian Journal of Biology 13(4), 49-58. [Persian].
Godefroid, S., Koedam, N., 2004. Interspecific variation in Soil compaction sensitivity among forest floor species. Biological Conservation 119, 207- 217.
Gray, J.S., 1987. Species-Abundance patterns, Organization of communities, past and present (eds Gee, J.H.R., and P.S. Giller, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford. pp. 53-67.
Grime, J.P., Hodgson, J.G., Hunt, R., 2007. Comparative Plant Ecology a functional approach to common British species. Castlepoint Press, Dalbeattie. 752 p.
Hammer, Ø., 2012. PAleontological STatistics version 2.17. Natural History Museum, University of Oslo.
Hamzeh'ee, B. 2005. Phytosociological study of Bisotun protected area.The final report of the research project, No. 3734. Forest and Rangeland Research Institute, 94 p.
Hamzeh'ee, B., Khanhasani, M., Khodakarami, Y., Nemati, P.M. 2008. Floristic and phytosociological study of Chaharzebar forests in Kermanshah. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar 16(2) 211-229. [Persian].
Heydari, M., Mahdavi, A., 2009. The survey of plant species diversity and richness between ecological species groups (Zagros ecosystem, Ilam). J. Appl. Sci. 9(4), 745-751. [Persian].
Heydari, M., Poorbabaei, H., Rostami, T., Begim Faghir, M., Salehi, A., Ostad Hashmei, R., 2013. Plant species in Oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) understory and their relationship with physical and chemical properties of soil in different altitude classes in the Arghvan valley protected area, Iran. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences 11(1), 97-110. [Persian].
Hill, J.K., Hamer, K.C. 1998. Using species abundance models as indicators of habitate disturbance in tropical forests. Journal of Applied Ecology 32:754-760.
Hughes, A. R., and J. E. Byrnes. 2007. Reciprocal relationships and potential feedbacks between biodiversity and disturbance. Ecology Letters 10, 849-864.
Keeley, J.E., D. Lubin, and C.J. Fortheringham. 2003. Fire and grazing impacts on plant diversity and alien plant invasions in the Southern Sierra Nevada. Ecological Application 13(5), 1355- 1374.
Kenneth, W.T., R.A. Edward, K.M. Neil, R.G. Melvin, 2003. Spatial and temporal patterns   of cattle feces deposition on rangeland. Journal of Range Management 56, 432-438.
Khanhasani, M., Atri, M. 2001. Phytosociology of Darbadam Forest (in: Fatahi, M., 2001). Management of    Zagros forests (Kermanshah Darbadam forests), Volume I: Basic studies. Institute of Forestry and Rangeland Research, 240, 170-125.
Knnap, A.K., Seastedt, T.R., 1986. Detritus accumulation limits productivity of tallgrass prairie. BioScience 36, 662-668.
 Kyriazopoulos, A.P., Abraham, E.M., Parissi, Z.M., Korakis G. and Abas, Z., 2010.Floristic diversity of an open coppice oak forest as affected by grazing. Options Méditerranéennes, 92:247- 250.
Łaska, G. 2001. The disturbance and vegetation dynamics: a review and an alternative framework. Plant Ecology157,77–99.
Lempesi, A., Kyriazopoulos, A.P., Orfanoudakis, M., Korakis, G. 2013. Soil Properties and Plant Community Changes along a Goat Grazing Intensity Gradient in an Open Canopy Oak Forest. Not Bot Horti Agrobo, 41(2), 567-575.
Levine, J.M., and C.M. D'Antonio, 1999. Elton revisited: a review of evidence linking diversity and invisibility. Oikos 87, 15-26.
Lososová, Z. Chytrý, Š. Cimalová, Z. Kropáč, Z. Otýpková, P. Pyšek, and L. Tichý. 2004. Weed vegetation of arable land in Central Europe: Gradients of diversity and species composition. Journal of Vegetation Science 15, 414-422.
Mac­Nab, W.H., Browning, S.A., Simon, S.A. and Fouts, P.E. 1999. An unconventional approach to ecosystem unit classification in western north Carolina, USA. Forest ecology and management 114, 405-420.
Magurran, A.E. 2007. Species abundance distributions over time. Ecol. Lett., 10, 347–354.
McCune, B., and M. J. Mefford. 1999. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data, version 4.17, MjM Software, Gleneden Beach, Oregon, U.S.A.
Magurran, A.E. 1988. Ecological diversity and its measurement. Chapman and Hall. London. 524 p.
Mirdavoodi, H., 2013. Effects of disturbance on plants diversity and invasive species in Quercus brantii communities in Zagros forests, west of Iran (Case study: Dalab forest, Ilam). Ph.D Thesis, Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran. 116 p.[Persian].
Mirzaei, J., Karami, A., 2015. Plant diversity and richness in relation to environmental gradient in Zagros ecosystems, West of Iran. Journal of Rangeland Science 5(4), 294- 302.
Mohadjer, M.R., 2012. Silviculture. University of Tehran Press, Tehran. 418 p. [Persian].
 Mozaffarian, V., 2005. Trees and shrubs of Iran. Farhang Press, Tehran. 1003p. [Persian].
 Mozaffarian, V., 2009. Flora of Ilam. Farhang Press.Tehran. 700p. [Persian].
Naaf, T., and M.Wulf. 2007. Effects of gap size, light and herbivory on the herb layer vegetation in European beech forest gap. Forest Ecology and Management 244,141-149.
Nummelin, m., 1998. Log-normal distribution of species abundances is not a universal indicator of rain forest disturbance. Journal of Applied Ecology 35,454-457.
Pourbabaei, H., Heydari, M., Najafifar, A., 2010. The relationship between plant diversity and physiographic factors in Ghalarang protected area. Ecol Environ Conserv 16(4),1-7.
Pourreza, M., Safari, H., Khodakarami, Y., Mashayekhi, S.h., 2009. Preliminary results of post fire resprouting of manna oak (Quercus brantii L.) in the Zagros forests, Kermanshah. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research 17, 225−236. [Persian].
Pourreza, M., Hosseini, S.M., Safari Sinegani, A.A., Matinizadeh, M., Alavai, S.J., 2014.Herbaceous species diversity in relation to fire severity in Zagros oak forests, Iran. J. For. Res. 25(1), 113−120.
Rechinger, K. H. (ed.) 1963- 2006. Flora Iranica. nos. 1-176. Academische Druk-u. Verlagsanstalt. Graz.
Rodríguez-Calcerrada, J., S. Mutke, J. Alonso L. Gil, J. A. Pardos, and I. Aranda. 2008.Influence of overstory density on understory light, soil moisture, and survival of two underplanted oak species in a Mediterranean montane Scots pine forest. Forest systems 17(1), 31-38.
Royo, A.A., R., Collins, M.B. Adams, C., Kirschbaum, and W.W. Carson. 2010. Pervasive interactions between ungulate browsers and disturbance regimes promote temperate forest herbaceous diversity. Ecology 91(1), 93- 105.
 Saint-Laurent, D., Gervais-Beaulac, V., Paradis, R., Arsenault-Boucher, L., Demers, S. 2017. Distribution of Soil Organic Carbon in Riparian Forest Soils Affected by Frequent Floods (Southern Québec, Canada), Forests, 8(124): 1-15.
Schulte, L.A., Mitchell, R.J., Hunter Jr., M.L., Franklin, J.F., McIntyre, R.K., alik, B.J., 2006. Evaluating the conceptual tools for forest biodiversity conservation and their implementation in the U.S. Forest Ecology and Management 232, 1-11.
Shakeri, Z. 2012. Invasive Plants Following Disturbances in Fagus orientalis Communities in the Caspian Forests, North of Iran, Ph.D Thesis, Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran. 105 p. [Persian].
Simberloff, D., Rejmanek, M., 2011. Encyclopoedia of biological invasions. University of California Press, Los Angeles. 792 p.
Spasojevic, M.J., R.J. Aicher, G.R. Koch, E.S. Marquardt, and N. Mirotchnick. 2010. Fire and grazing in mesic tallgrass prairie: impacts on plant species and functional traits. Ecology 91(6), 1651-1659.
Takhtajan, M., 1986. Floristic regions of the world. University of California Press, Berkeley. 522  p.
 ter Braak, C.J.F., and P. Smilauer. 2012. Canoco5, Software for multivariate data exploration, Trial version.
Tokeshi, M., 1993. Species abundance patterns and community structure. Advances in Ecological Research 24,111-186.
Valipour, A., Plieninger, T., Shakeri, Z., Ghazanfari, H., Namiranian, M., Lexer, M.J., 2014. Traditional silvopastoral management and its effects on forest stand structure in northern Zagros, Iran. For Ecol Mana.  327,221–230
Vaseghi, P., Ejtehadi, H., Zokaii, M. 2008. Floristic studies, life form and chorology of plants in Kalat highlands of Gonabad, Khorasan Razavi Province, East of Iran. Journal of Tarbiat Moallem University, 8(1):75-88.
Wittaker, R.H., 1956. Vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecological Monographs 26, 1-80.
Zahedipour, H., 1997. The Investigation of Diversity in Three Grazing Treatments via Models. Journal of Pajouhesh and Sazandegi 33, 71-77. [Persian].
Zida, D., Sawadogo, L., Tigabu, M., Oden, P.C., 2007. Dynamics of sapling population in savanna woodlands of Burkina Faso subjected to grazing, early fire and selective tree cutting for a decade. Forest Ecology and Management 243, 102- 115.
 Zobeiri, M. 2007. Forest biometry. Faculty of natural resources, university of Tehran, Iran. 405 p. [Persian].