Investigating the relationships between ecological structure of Neyshabuor city and heat islands patterns with emphasis on landscape ecology approach

Document Type : Research Paper




The growth of urbanization has changed the ecological structure by changing the land use and cover, creating urban heat islands (UHI) and has been caused climate changes in the last decades. City of Neyshabuor has experienced the above mentioned changes; thus, studying and analysis of changes may lead to improve the ecological conditions. The main question in this research is how the ecological elements and structure affects heat islands patterns in Neyshabuor urban area. The present study is based on Landscape Ecology approach and metrics that were used to evaluate the ecological structure of Neyshabuor urban area. The purpose of the research is to analysis the relationship between ecological structure of Neyshabuor city, land surface temperature and heat islands pattern. Satellite images related to ETM+ sensor of Landsat satellite have been used in August 2010 to evaluate heat islands. The results indicate that there is significant correlation between landscape metrics and LST pattern. Accordingly, the composition and configuration of landscape metrics have significantly negative correlation with UHI. It suggests that the landscape elements such as, green spaces, gardens, farmlands and etc. can mitigate the effect on LST and UHI in our case study. Although, characteristics of landscape spatial structure have different correlation with LST and UHI, but positive synergy in ecological elements can help to decrease or preventing of LST and UHI effects in build up area. 


Anonymous. 2010. Available from http://WWW.USGS.GOV. Accessed Agust 2010.
Bafteshahr Consultant Engineers. 2002."The report on environmental issues of Tehran Region" 1. Tehran
Chen, A., Yao, L., Sun, R., Chen, L., 2014. How many metrics are required to identify the effects of the landscape pattern on land surface temperature?  Ecological Indicators 45, 424–433.
Forman, R.T.T., 1995. Land Mosaics. The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions. Cambridge University Press, 632 p.
Forman, R.TT., Godron, M., 1986. Landscape Ecology. USA: John Wily & Sons.
Gis, Esri. 2005. Mapping Software v.9.3. Redlands, CA.USA.
Gustafson, E. J., 1998. Minireview: Quantifying landscape spatial pattern: What is the state of the art? Ecosystems, 1(2), 143–156.
Howard, L., 1833. The Climate of London: Deduced from Meteorological Observations Made in the Metropolis and at Various Places Around it. London, Harvey and Darton
Ingegonli, V., 2002. Landscape Ecology, A Widening Foundation Berlin Heidelberg
Landsat Project Science Office., 2001. Land sat 7 Science Data User’s Handbook. Available online from following website: /handbook_toc. Html, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Washington, DC.
Leitão, A.B., Ahern, J., 2002. Applying landscape ecological concepts and metrics in sustainable landscape planning, Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol 59, Issue 2, 65-93.
Li, H., Reynolds, J. F.,1993. A new contagion index to quantify spatial patterns of landscapes. Landscape Ecology, 8(3), 155–162.
Li, H., Wu, J., 2004. Use and misuse of landscape indices. Landscape Ecology, 19(4),389–399.
Li, J., Song, C., Cao, L., Zhu, F., Meng, X., Wu, J., 2011. Impacts of landscape structure on surface urban heat islands: A case study of Shanghai, China. Remote Sensing of Environment (115) .3249–3263
Madih.A. Nishapur and strategy development, physical geography, human, economic and tourism.2005.1.1-20. (in Persian) 
Maimaitiyiming, M., Ghulam,A., Tiyip, T., Pla, F., Latorre-Carmona, P., Halik ,U., Sawut M., Caetano ,M., 2014. Effects of green space spatial pattern on land surface temperature:Implications for sustainable urban planning and climate change adaptation, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 89 .59–66P.
McGarigal, K., Cushman, S. A. Neel, M. C., Ene, E., 2002. FRAGSTATS: Spatial Pattern Analysis Program for Categorical Maps, Computer Software Program Produced by the Authors at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.Available at:
Mousavi Baigi, M., Ashraf, B., Faridhosseini, A.Z., Mianabadi, A., 2012. The Investigation of Mashhad’s Heat Island Using Satellite Images and Applying Fractal Theory. Geography and environment HazardsVol 1, No 1.35-49. (in Persian)
Naveh, Z., Liberman, A.S., 1984. Landscape ecology: theory and application. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
Oke, T.R., 1982. The Energetic Basis of the Urban Heat Island. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. 108:1-24.
Parivar, P., Yavari, A.R., Faryadi, S., Sotoude, A., 2009. Landscape Ecological Structure Analysis of Tehran to Develop Strategies for Improving Environmental Quality. Vol35, Issue 50, P 45-57. (in Persian)
Shabani, N., Abarko, M., Parivar, P., Kochakzadeh, M., 2015.Introduction and application of landscape ecology approach the scale of the city(Tehran). Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, 12(4) ,185-197. (in Persian) 
Shirani,N., Karimi, S.,2013. Use GISin patterns urban landscape studies. (in Persian)
Songa ،J., Shihong, D., Xin, F., Luo, G., 2014. The relationships between landscape compositions and lan surfacetemperature: Quantifying their resolution sensitivity with spatialregression modelsJuer. Landscape and Urban Planning 123 ,145– 157.
Zhou, W., Huang, G., Cadenasso, M.L., 2011. Does spatial configuration matter?Understanding the effects of land cover pattern on land surface temperature in urban landscapes. Landsc. Urban Plan. 102, 54–63.